CO2_2016 - page 54

52
Chimica Oggi - Chemistry Today
- vol. 34(2) March/April 2016
KEYWORDS: Naproxen, carbamazepine, wastewater treatment stations, toxicity.
Abstract
Isolation, identification and toxicological monitoring of new microbial consortia to degrade PPCP´s
(pharmaceuticals and personal care products) have direct applications to improve the quality of
effluents in WWTP (wastewater treatment plants). In this work, we present isolation and molecular identification of a microbial strain
degrading frequently detected compounds in effluent water such as naproxen (analgesic) and carbamazepine (anticonvulsant), as
well as detoxification evaluation by a zebrafish embryos biomodel. Naproxen was completely removed from real contaminated
water samples within 7 days of culture by Serratia sp. However, the microbial strain was unable to remove carbamazepine remaining
constant until the analysis finished. Toxicity test showed that naproxen elimination reduces mortality zebrafish embryos at 28%. As
conclusion, Serratia sp. and possible other Enterobacteriaceae could be used in bioreactors and purifying plant biodiscs in order to
achieve naproxen and probably others PPCPs total elimination from effluent prior being poured into rivers or lakes.
Bioremediation techniques
for naproxen and carbamazepine elimination.
Toxicity evaluation test
INTRODUCTION
PPCP´s (
pharmaceuticals and personal care products
) are
a large group of chemicals covering all pharmaceuticals
for both human and animal use, diagnostic agents,
vitamin supplements and other fine chemicals such as
fragrances or sunscreens. In the 90s they were known as
emerging water contaminants (1) due to the potential
impact in different environmental compartments (2).
Most of PPCP´s found in wastewater treatment plants
are hormones (30%), analgesics and anti-inflammatory
(20%) and antibiotics (9%) (3). Ibuprofen, diclofenac or
carbamazepine are some examples of chemicals found in
drinking water (4). A plan ensuring the quality of water is
required for all the competent authorities of each member
state at 2015 by Water Framework Directive (2000/60/
EC). Nevertheless, a maximum limit of these compounds
present in drinking water has not been setting yet by the
European Union. Therefore, PPCP´s are of great interest
both at scientific and social levels. Urban wastewater
is one of the polluting environment paths due to an
assimilation lack and subsequent excretion by human
body, elimination of chemicals down the drain or by
urban solid waste followed by leaching into the aquatic
environment. A higher pharmaceuticals concentration
is present in wastewater from both hospitals and PPCP´s
manufacturing companies (5). Moreover, gradual aging
of population particularly marked in Spain suggests a
growing consumption of drugs in the next years. In fact,
Spain is seventh placed by the World Health Institute
related to world consumption of drugs. Finally, livestock is
also considered an important way of ground and surface
water pollution because of chemicals consumption from
animals and subsequent contamination of manure used
as fertilizer.
Many efforts are being made by the scientist community
to determine the presence and risk of these pollutants in
aquatic systems trying to remove them by wastewater
treatments and recycling processes. Current pollutants
concentrations are usually in a range between ng·L
-1
and mg·L
-1
(6). Even lower concentration levels of PPCP
in waters affect human health due to their potential
biomagnification through the food chain in aquatic organisms
(7). The use of membrane bioreactors (MBR), ozonation
processes and advanced oxidation (AOP) (6), activated
carbon adsorption (8), photocatalytic treatments (9) or
ultraviolet photodegradation (10) are novel techniques for
PPCP´s removal. However, the microorganisms efficiency
(isolates or consortia) for degrading contaminants is
presented as an alternative to those techniques. In this
case, the complete pollutants transformation into non-
toxic substances (CO
2
, N
2
, H
2
O) as well as low economic,
MARÍA DEL CARMEN MOLINA*, NATALIA GONZÁLEZ BENÍTEZ
1
, RAQUEL SIMARRO
1
, LUIS FERNANDO BAUTISTA
2
,
CAROLINA VARGAS
2
, JESÚS PABLO GARCÍA CAMBERO
3
, EVA MARÍA DÍAZ
1
, MANUEL ARRAYÁS
4
, MARÍA ÁNGELES QUIJANO
5
*Corresponding author
1. Departamento de Biología, Geología, Física y Química Inorgánica, ESCET, URJC. 28933 Móstoles, Madrid, Spain
2. Departamento de Tecnología Química y Energética, Tecnología Química y Ambiental,
Tecnología Mecánica y Química Analítica. ESCET, URJC, 28933 Móstoles, Madrid, Spain
3. Área de Toxicología, Centro Nacional de Salud Ambiental,
Instituto de la Salud Carlos III, 28220 Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain
4. Área de Electromagnetismo, URJC, 28943 Fuenlabrada, Madrid. Spain
5. Departamento de Ingeniería Civil: Hidráulica y Ordenación del Territorio, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería Civil,
Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28014 Madrid, Spain
CATALYSIS AND BIOCATALYSIS
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