HPC4_2017 - page 27

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H
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Today
- Household and Personal Care Today
- vol. 12(4) July/August 2017
KEYWORDS: Foundation, UVA/UVB ratio, solubility, interaction, measurement, sun care.
Abstract
Launched between 2013 and 2016, only 12% of foundations claiming a SPF contain UVA filters. This paper
describes the benefit of a balanced protection, the challenges in formulation with some guideline to help
the formulator during the development of a foundation with SPF/UVA PF and the limitation of the in-vitro SPF testing for foundation.
In colour cosmetics, the increasing numbers of hybrid products with a sun protection claim, alongside nourishing and moisturizing
claim are linked to the growing consumer awareness that everyday exposures to the sun over years has an impact on the skin’s health
and on its appearance. It’s the responsibility of the formulator to provide a safe and balanced protection. The aim of this article is to
help the formulator with some guiding principles to optimise the effectiveness of a balanced protection in foundation.
UVA protection in foundation
UVA RADIATION, BENEFIT OF BALANCED PROTECTION
UVA rays comprise 95% of the total ultraviolet radiation
reaching the Earth’s surface and are not blocked by clouds
or the ozone layer. UVA is divided into two wave ranges,
UVA I, which measures 340-400 nanometres (nm) and UVA II
which extends from 320-340 nm. Due to its longer wavelength,
UVA rays can penetrate the skin deeper than UVB, causing
extracellular matrix breakdown, generating premature skin-
ageing and photocarcinogenesis (1). UVA protection is also
closely linked to air pollution. There is evidence that exposure
to ultraviolet radiation (UV) might potentiate the harmful
effects of air-borne particles on human skin. Ozone, long
UVA rays, cigarette smoke and other major pollutant factors
are able to boost the oxidization of squalene. Peroxidized
squalene leads to comedogenesis, contributes to the
development of inflammatory acne and possibly speeds up
the skin ageing process
(2). For those reasons, daily care and
colour cosmetic product claiming SPF protection should offer
full UV spectral coverage or broad spectrum protection. In
Europe, Colipa recommends that the UVA Protection Factor
(UVAPF) of a sunscreen should be at least one third of the
labelled SPF and the critical wavelength of the product
should be at least 370nm. In the UK, they assign star ratings
based on the UVA/UVB ratio determined in vitro. The FDA also
requires that sun protection meet this critical wavelength in
order to claim ‘broad spectrum’ protection on the pack. And
in Asia, they use an in vivo Persistent Pigment Darkening (PPD)
method to assign a PA label to a product. There are three PA
ranking available, with PA+ corresponding to a product with
a UVAPF of between 2 and 4, PA++ between 4 and 8, PA+++
with a UVAPF between 8 and 16 and PA++++ for products
offering UVAPF greater than 16. Depending on the area in
the world, labelling UVA protection is more or less challenging
to achieve. For example, a formulation label SPF 30 with
a critical wavelength of 369nm which therefore doesn’t
meet the ‘one third’, won’t be labelled ‘broad spectrum’
in US or have the logo UVA in Europe but can claim PA++ in
Japan. The European Commission recommendation for UVA
protection is a recommendation only in beach care. In daily
care it is not mandatory to follow the 1/3 regulation and
meet the critical wavelength. However, most of the players in
daily care follow this regulation even if a legal requirement in
Europe doesn’t seem to be planned in the near future.
AWARENESS OF THE CONSUMER AND MARKET ANALYSIS
Global focus put by governments and brands on sun
damage and the importance of protecting the skin have
led to greater consumer awareness and increase of SPF
use. However, only 20% of European consumers wear sun
protection on a daily basis. Sun protection is still seen as
a holiday, beach product. Chinese tend to use more
products with UV protection, due to the Asian culture
idolising pale skin (Source: Mintel). The introduction of
SPF into face creams and makeup started more than 10
years ago. Nowadays, SPF 15 in a daily moisturizer is the
norm.
(3) Most people know about UVB but understand
less about UVA. In 2016, in sun care, 40% of UK consumers
think that it is more important that a product is high SPF
rather than ‘broad spectrum’ or ‘multispectrum’. 58% of
UK consumers think that high SPF (eg SPF 30) protects the
skin from UVA and UVB rays. UVA protection is still confusing
for consumers partially because of the large variability in
labelling. Consumers should be better educated about the
hazards and the risks connected with long exposure to the
UV radiation and the formulators of product containing UV
filters should provide safer and more photostable products.
If we look specifically at foundation, worldwide, only 12%
of foundations claiming an SPF, launched between 2013
and 2016, contain UVA filters. (Source: Mintel). This leaves a
potential future opportunity for upgrading current products
and introducing new products on the market. Due to the
growing concerns around pollution, face makeup with UV
protection can act as another dimension of protection.
SUN CARE
CLARA LE BERRE
Oriflame Research and Development Ltd, Bray, Ireland
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