Modernapplications of amino acids and dipeptidesin pharmaceuticals and biopharmaceuticals
The availability of inexpensive fermentation and biocatalytic routes to both the proteinogenic and to some unnatural amino acids has led to their wider adoption as intermediates in new drugs. Examples are given of the application of several unnatural amino acids in the synthesis of modern pharmaceuticals. In addition, the development of chemically defined media for mammalian cell culture has led to new applications for amino acids and for their derivatives, e.g. short chain peptides and keto-acids.