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Role of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDS) for the aroma formation in plants

ANDRIATI NINGRUM
Gadjah Mada University, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, 
Department of Food Science and Agricultural Product Technology, 
Jalan Flora No.1, BulakSumur, 55281 Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Abstract

Carotenoids are widely distributed whereas C40 isoprenoid pigments with polyene chains contain up to 15 conjugated double bonds.  They furnish flowers and fruits with distinct colour (e.g., yellow, orange, and red), which can attract pollinators.  Besides, carotenoids also have important role in human nutrition, especially some of carotenoids have an important function as Provitamin A activity. Specific enzymatic cleavage carotenoids by the act of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) will produce various types of norisoprenoids.  Several carotenoid derived aroma compounds or norisoprenoids are extremely powerful and also can act as beneficial substances for human health.  World market volume for flavours and fragrance is high from year to year especially for aroma chemicals being produced by natural biocatalyst reaction like enzymatic cleavage carotenoids to produce natural norisoprenoids.  This review will summarize information of the involvement of these enzymes in formation of carotenoid derived aroma compounds or norisoprenoids in several plants.


INTRODUCTION

Carotenoids are widely distributed where C40 isoprenoid pigments with polyene chains contain up to 15 conjugated double bonds2. More than 700 naturally occurring carotenoids have been identified2. They furnish flowers and fruits with distinct colour (i.e., yellow, orange, and red), which attract pollinators, and play important roles in photosynthesis, light harvesting, and prevention of photooxidative damage (1). Carotenoids are compounds which have several conjugated double-bond structure. Thus, carotenoids undergo chemical and enzymatic reactions generating several compounds, which can have powerful aroma properties, i.e., carotenoids are precursors of norisoprenoids (2). These breakdown products of carotenoids ar