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Agro FOOD Industry Hi Tech - vol. 31(2) 2020 9. Kiss AK, Bazylko A, Filipek A, et al. 2011. Oenothein B’s contribution to the anti- inflammatory and antioxidant activity of Epilobium sp. Phytomedicine. 18: 557-560. 10. Hevesi Tóth B, Blazics B, Kéry A. 2009. Polyphenol composition and antioxidant capacity of Epilobium species. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis. 49: 26–31. 11. Averett JE, Raven PH, Becker H. 1979. The flavonoids of Onagraceae: tribe Epilobieae. American Journal of Botany. 66: 1151–1155. 12. Hiermann A. 1995. Phytochemical characterization of E. angustifolium L. and its differentiation to other Epilobium species by TLC and HPLC. Scientia Pharmaceutica. 63: 135–144. 13. Bazylko A, Kiss AK, Kowalski J. 2007. High- performance thin- layer chromatography method for quantitative determination of oenothein B and quercetin glucuronide in aqueous extract of Epilobii angustifolii herba. Journal of Chromatography. 1173: 146–150. 14. Granica S, Bazylko A, Kiss AK. 2012. Determination of macrocyclic ellagitannin oenothein B in plant materials by HPLC-DAD- MS: method development and validation. Phytochemical Analysis. 23: 582–587. 15. European Union herbal monograph on Epilobium angustifolium L. and/or Epilobium parviflorum Schreb., herba . 2015. 16. Capasso F, Grandolini G, Izzo AA. 2006. Fitoterapia, Springer-Verlag Italia 17. Gruenwald. 2007. PDR for Herbal Medicine, Thomson editor, IV edition. 18. Galen, C. and Plowright, R. C. 1985. The effects of nectar level and flower development on pollen carry-over in inflorescences of fireweed ( Epilobium angustifolium ) (Onagraceae). Can. J. Bot. 63: 488 491. 19. Bertsch, A. 1983. Nectar production of Epilobium angustifolium L. at different air humidities; nectar sugars in individual flowers and the optimal foraging theory. Oecologia (Berlin) 59: 40-48. 20. Kaškonienė V, Stankevičius M, Drevinskas T, et al., 2015. Evaluation of phytochemical composition of fresh and dried raw material of introduced Chamerion angustifolium L. using chromatographic, spectrophotometric and chemometric techniques. Phytochemistry; 115:184-93. 21. Allkanjari O, Vitalone A. 2015. What do we know about phytotherapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia? Life Sciences, 126: 42–56. future application of this plant in standardized extract production for food supplements market. RESULTS AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES Organic and sustainable agricultureprinciples could be applied to fireweed cultivation, thanks to precision agriculture method and biodiversity (which is synergic with Epilobium angustifolium L. cultivation). Fireweed could be an important plant for honey industry: thanks to precision agriculture approach, next year also bee health status will be monitored. Data collection and processing will be very important to understand how fireweed pollen interacts with bees. Due to population ageing in Western countries, the market of prostatitis and BPH food supplements is increasing every year. Most of products are based on phytosterols coming from exotic plants as Serenoa repens fruits and Pygeum africanum bark. The last plant belongs to C.I.T.E.S. list, annex B (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species). Since the demanding for natural remedies for this application is growing, it will be better to focus on local European plants that can be cultivated respecting the environment, facilitating the entomophilous insects’ health and producing functional ingredients with a rigorous scientific background. REFERENCES AND NOTES 1. Mosquin, T. 1966. A new taxonomy for Epilobium angustifolium L. (Onagraceae). Brittonia 18: 167- 188. 2. Emery, A, E. H. 1955. The formation of buds on the roots of Chamaenerion angustifolium (L.) Scop. Phytomorphology 5: 139-145. 3. Broderik, D. H. 1990. The biology of Canadian weeds. 93. Epilobium angustfolium L. (Onagraceae). Can. J. Plant Sci. 70: 247-259. 4. Granica S, Piwowarski JP, Czerwińska ME et al. 2014. Phytochemistry, pharmacology and traditional uses of different Epilobium species (Onagraceae): A review.JournalofEthnopharmacology.156,316–346. 5. Schepetkin IA, Kirpotina LN, Jakiw L, et al. 2009. Immunomodula- tory activity of oenothein B isolated from Epilobium angustifolium . Journal of Immunology. 183: 6754–6766. 6. Schepetkin IA, Ramstead AG, Kirpotina LN, et al. 2016. Therapeutic Potential of Polyphenols from Epilobium angustifolium (Fireweed). Phytotherapy Research. 1297: 1287-1297. 7. Kiss A, Kowalski J, Melzig MF. 2004. Compounds from Epilobium angustifolium inhibit the specific metallopeptidases ACE, NEP and APN. Planta Medica. 70: 919-923. 8. Kiss A, Kowalski J, Melzig MF. 2006. Effect of Epilobium angustifolium L. extracts and polyphenols on cell proliferation and neutral endopeptidase activity in selected cell lines. Pharmazie. 61: 66-69. Violetta Insolia is a biologist working in the Scientific Direction at EPO Srl. After a PhD in Genetics, Molecular and Cellular Biology, she obtained a second Master’s degree in Nutraceutical Products. She is an expert in the field of Botanicals and their applications, and she actively works as project and product developer and takes care of scientific marketing. Yuri Lazzarini is a biologist working in Neoruralehub’s R&D department. He graduated with master’s degree in Molecular Microbiology. He’s an anaerobic digestion expert, and actively involved in projects for biodiversity protection and integrated biological defense. Gilberto Garuti - He worked in ENEA (Italian, Energy and Environmental National Agency) as senior researcher he cooperated with institutions in Europe and China. He has been responsible of R&D on Biological Process for ECODECO spa and contract leader of projects funded by MIUR (Ministry of University and Research) Actually is responsible of R&D in NeoruraleHUB srl, a company involved in bio-energy and agricultural innovation. A BOUT THE AUTHORS Figure 5. Oenothein B chromatogram. The x-axis represents retention time, and AU on the y-axis represents absorbance units. The highest peak is represented by OeB. 30

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