Bioenergy and stressed out skin, what can we do?


*Corresponding Authors
1. Newcastle University, Newcastle, United Kingdom
2. Tancream Ltd, Darlington, United Kingdom


Skin is vulnerable to stress from ultraviolet light, with rays produced naturally from the sun or artificially via
tanning beds. Overexposure of ultraviolet light has the potential to cause premature ageing, decreased
bioenergy of the skin and skin cancer. While the damaging effects are recognised by the public, the
motivation for tanned skin is a driver for exposure for many individuals of the Caucasian population,
particularly in the UK. Sunless tanning products are widely available to consumers although often these
products do not offer any sun protection. Products combining sunless tanning ingredients with sun
protection have recently entered the market, therefore this review explores how these products offer a
safer alternative to ultraviolet tanning whilst synergistically reducing stressed out skin damage.

Ageing is a complex, multifactorial process which affects all individuals but to different extents. Ageing of the skin is an inevitable process, although there are several factors which can cause the skin to age prematurely. The sun is a substantial environmental insult which can accelerate skin ageing via oxidative stress, with damage becoming notably visible overtime (1). However, individuals often spend a significant amount of time exposed to the sun regardless of the damaging consequences to achieve tanned skin, particularly Caucasian individuals in the UK (2). Sunless tanning products with sun protection offer an option to explore in promotion of sun safe behaviours to prevent stressed out skin.


The skin is the first defence barrier to microorganisms, and it is considered the largest organ of the human body, accounting for 15% of total body weight(3, 4). Skin offers protection from external stressors, together with roles in fluid and temperature homeostasis. There are three distinct layers of the skin: the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue layer. The epidermis consists ...