Bioactive lipids and COVID-19
Linolenic acid (LA), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), dihomo-GLA (DGLA), arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been shown to inactivate enveloped viruses such as influenza, Sindbis, Sendai, hepatitis B and C (HBV and HCV) and several bacteria. Since COVID-19 (coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2), SARS of 2002-2003 (SARS-CoV-1) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS; 2012-ongoing) are all enveloped viruses; it is likely that they are also inactivated by these bioactive lipids, especially by AA. Hence, it is worthwhile to test the efficacy of these lipids in the inactivation of SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 (Coronavirus) and whether administration of AA and other lipids as nasal drops, mouth wash or gargling, oral supplements and intravenous infusion can ameliorate their pathogenicity.
Definition of bioactive lipids: Linolenic acid (LA), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), dihomo-GLA (DGLA), arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), prostaglandins (PGs), thromboxanes (TXs), leukotrienes (LTs), lipoxins (LXs), resolvins, protectins and maresins are all considered as bioactive lipids.
The current epidemic of COVID-19 (coronavirus) has been declared as a pandemic by WHO that has affected almost all countries in the world.
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) shares about 80% identity with that of SARS-CoV-1 and 96% identical to the bat coronavirus BatCoV RaTG13 (1).
SARS-CoV-2 particles are spherical and have spiking proteins (S protein) protruding from their surface which use angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and the cellular protease transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) to enter target cells. It is noteworthy that ACE2 is expressed in lungs, heart, kidneys and intestine and hence, COVID-19 predominantly targets these tissues.
Bioactive lipids inactivat ... ...