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Electrochemical techniques – Analytical tools for quality control of sunscreens

corresponding

ANDRÉIA PIERETTI DA SILVA2, UENDINARA BILIBIO1, ADRIANA EVARISTO DE CARVALHO1, VALDIR SOUZA FERREIRA2, MAGNO APARECIDO GONÇALVES TRINDADE1*
1. Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, School of Science and Technology, Rodovia Dourados-Itahum, km 12, Dourados, MS 79804-970, Brazil
2. Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Department of Chemistry Av. Filinto Muller, 1555. Caixa Postal 549, Campo Grande, MS 79074-460, Brazil
*Corresponding author

Abstract

Sunscreens are commonly used to protect skin from exposure to sunlight. The health problems related to ultraviolet (UV) radiation can be minimised by the appropriate use of these products. In addition, some important aspects involving skin cancer associated with the use of chemical sun-blocking agents make some sunscreens almost as damaging as UV radiation itself. Accordingly, this review reports the use of available electrochemical techniques for the development of analytical methods aimed at quality control of sunscreens containing active sun-blocking agents, as well as advances in this field.


INTRODUCTION
Presently, the use of sunscreens has been recognized to be necessary by people across the globe, and following this tendency, a variety of sunscreen products have been introduced in the market. With this trend, there is a need for sun-blocking agents with better protection efficiency, greater chemical stability, and population accessibility. In this context, the segment has improved technical standards and manufacturing processes of raw materials as well as the research in the development of new sunscreens (1-4).
Sunscreens are, in general, organic or inorganic (titanium dioxide and zinc oxide) compounds containing chemical groups that can absorb UVA and UVB radiation (1-5). Normally, the total number of sun-blocking agents that make up a commercial product depends on the sun protection factor (SPF) proposed for each formulation. Currently, sunscreens containing UV filters have also been used in cosmetics such as facial day creams, after-shave products, shampoos, etc. as part of safe-sun practices to reduce the effects of carcinogenic and photodamaging solar UV radiation (1, 2). As a result, protection against sunlight involves the u ...




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