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Galactosemia,diet and dairy products: a review


*Corresponding author
Ege University Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Dairy Technology, Bornova, Izmir, TURKEY


Galactosemia is a rare, autosomal recessive condition in which resulting the inability to convert galactose to glucose. Individuals with galactosemia are intolerant of dietary lactose and galactose, primarily found in milk and milk products. If untreated, the disorder can cause liver failure, kidney dysfunction, sepsis, and death. If it is diagnosed soon after birth and treated by removal of lactose and galactose from the diet, the symptoms will resolve and many of the long-term complications, including cataracts and mental retardation, can be prevented. In this review brief information on galactosemia has been given and dietary treatments, especially dairy products consumption for galactosemia patients were discussed.


Adverse reactions to food have been seen frequently and have been noted for two millenniums. At least 30% of individuals experience one or more episodes of food intolerance in their lifetime (1). Increasing public and medical interest have also popularized claims that a variety of physical and psychological symptoms are the result of food hypersensitivity. Increase in the number of patients are therefore deserving investigations on this subject (2). Such reactions may be mediated by immunologic, pharmacologic, toxic, infectious, idiosyncratic, metabolic, and neuropsychologic mechanisms. Of all adverse reactions to foods and food additives, < 20% are due to true allergy or hypersensitivity, defined as an event in which a definite immunopathologic process can be shown and a cause-and-effectrelation can be proven (3).
Various terms have been used to describe the adverse reactions to food. In 1995 the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) Position Paper on Food Allergy established a classification of food allergy based on pathogenetic mechanisms. According to this classification, adverse reactions to food co ...