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Low-carbohydrate diets, obesity and type 2 diabetes: A review


1. Robert Gordon University Centre for Obesity Research and Epidemiology, Institute of Health and Welfare Research, Faculty of Health and Social Care St Andrew Street Aberdeen, AB25 1HG, United Kingdom

ABSTRACT: This review examines the effects of low-carbohydrate, high-protein diets (LCHO) (<150g carbohydrate/d) on glycaemia and cardiovascular risk, energy expenditure, appetite and satiety, liver and kidney function, bone metabolism, and possible adverse effects in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). At this stage, there is evidence to suggest that the use of lower carbohydrate diets improves glycaemia, cardiovascular risk and liver function in patients with T2DM and broadens patient choice as LCHOs provide an alternative to the standard dietary interventions. However, there is still a lack of evidence for the use of these approaches in the longer term.

Obesity is the main aetiological factor in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with 70-80 percent of type 2 diabetes patients presenting with overweight and obesity (body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m2). It has been shown that a low-carbohydrate, high protein (LCHO) diet (<150g carbohydrate/d) (1) can improve glycaemic control and results in weight loss in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).This growing evidence was acknowledged by the Amer ...