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Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: Essential nutrients in high demand whose production will now go circular

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MARIO PAGLIARO
Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati, CNR, Palermo, Italy

The regular assumption of essential nutrients omega-3 long  chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) abundant in oily fish is critical for both physical and mental health of both adults and children (1). Health authorities recommend  healthy adults to increase their intake of omega-3 fats by regularly eating fish twice a week or, in case of lack of regular consumption of fish, by assuming a 2 g fish oil supplement several times a week. Depending on the position of the first double bond from the methyl  end group (ω end) of the fatty acid, the main long-chain PUFA belong  to ω-6 or to ω-3 families. In order to reestablish  a better balance between ω-3 and ω-6   fats, the WHO recommends a daily  intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 ω-3) plus docosahexaenoic acid  (DHA, 22:5  ω-3) ...