Protein enriched foods and healthy ageing – Effects of protein fortification on muffin characteristics


*Corresponding author
1. Food and Meal Science, Kristianstad University, Kristianstad, Sweden
2. Agrifood and Bioscience, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, IDEON, Lund, Sweden
3. Dept of Food Science, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark


Sarcopenia is a common problem among elderly. To maintain muscle mass, strength and function adequate dietary protein intake is of importance.
The aim is to enable the development of high-quality fortified foods to improve protein status in elderly. Current study aimed to investigate how sensory and physical characteristics of a popular snack in the form of muffins change when increasing protein content.
A reference muffin was compared to muffins fortified with soy flour, almond flour or whey protein, respectively. A focus group evaluated the sensory properties. Physical properties included colour measurement, water activity, weight and heights. All fortifiers affected the muffins differently, sensory as well as physical characteristics, showing the complexity of adding different fortifiers to muffins.


The number of people over 80 years will increase 71% until 2050 (1). By increased age the prevalence of sarcopenia increases. A condition defined by decline in muscle mass, strength and function, caused by age related transformation of body composition with increased body fat and corresponding decline in muscle mass (2, 3).
It may affect the ability to cope with activities of daily living, reducing independence and increasing need for help.
The requirements of dietary protein are therefore higher among older compared to younger adults (4, 5, 6).

Protein fortification of foods may increase the daily dietary intake. However, the level of fortification should not exceed the limit of when characteristics of the original food product alters to a degree not acceptable by the consumer. In Sweden, coffee time is highly appreciated and muffins are the most popular choice among elderly to complement their coffee (personal communication, Christina Karlsson, nutritional manager, ICA, Sweden, 2014).

As a part of a larger project on fortified high quality foods for elderly aiming to improve nutritional status, the objective of this ...