The chemical composition of traditional eye cosmetics in Sudan
This study was undertaken in order to determine the chemical composition of traditional eye cosmetics (“kohls”) available in Sudan. A total of 21 kohlsamples were purchased in local markets (“souks”). Thetechniques of X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and low vacuum scanning electron microscopy (LVSEM) wereused to analyse the samples. Overall, for the 21 samples,it was found that 7 (33 percent) contained a lead compound (galena, PbS) as the main component; witha further 1 sample having it present as a minorcomponent. The other main components were found tobe one of the following: amorphous carbon/a carbon-based compound (6/1), iron compounds (goethite,FeO(OH) and hematite, Fe2O3 mixtures) (3), calcite/aragonite (CaCO3) (1/1), zincite (ZnO) (1) and halite(NaCl) (1).