New genetic approach to identify Ulex species in CO2 extract
Many plants are used as raw materials to make products for fragrances and cosmetic, nutrition and health industries. Nowadays, for industrials and consumers, the authentication and traceability of these plants are increasing concerns in the wake of recent adulteration cases. In this study, we investigated the Ulex europaeus species (gorse) and the quality of CO2 extracts. CO2 extraction is a cold and pressurized extraction known to preserve active molecules We firstly used DNA barcoding to identify this species in raw materials. Secondly, in final extracts, the metabarcoding was successfully used to demonstrate on one hand that DNA can be found in CO2 extracts, and on the other hand, that the product was not adulterated and is composed of Ulex genera plants. Thus, this study shows that the DNA analysis provides performant and reliable results in the authentication and the traceability of raw materials and CO2 extract.
Ulex europaeus, European gorse, is a species coming from the Fabaceae family. This species originated in the Iberian peninsula and colonised Europe in the Neolithic (1). In textile industry, Ulex flowers are used for dyeing fabrics in a golden yellow color (2). Furthermore, it has been largely studied for its immunological properties. Extracts produced from the seeds of Ulex europeus were found to contain an inhibitor of human and murine lymphocyte growth (3, 4).
It is also a good model for studying the Ulex species genetic diversity (5). Lately, the olfactometric characteristics of gorse were revealed and used in cosmetic products (6, 7).
Indeed, the isoflavones and flavanones contained in gorse plant are widely used in cosmetics for its antioxidant properties (7). In fragrances industry, other properties and characteristics of Ulex (color flower and aroma) are also used. For example, gorse’s ashes, rich in potassium are used with clay or vegetable oils in soap production (8). Nowadays, CO2 extraction, a cold and pressurized extraction known t ...