An overview of modern, sustainably designed LPPS strategies


*Corresponding author
GAP Peptides LLC, Lubbock, USA


The chemical synthesis of peptides is one of the most wasteful and least green chemical processes. However, 21st century advances in synthesis methods are attracting attention due to their potential to eliminate the use of toxic solvents, minimize excessive waste, and reduce the negative environmental impact caused by peptide production. This article explores why interest in green chemistry is growing and reviews emerging LPPS technologies opening doors for peptides to be made at an industrial scale faster, with better yields, and with greater process efficiency than traditional methods.

Green Chemistry is a movement now being embraced by organizations focused on peptide chemistry. Peptide manufacturers have become increasingly receptive to considering alternative synthetic methods. We will take a brief look at recent motivating factors for the growing interest in greening peptide synthesis. Subsequently, we will address work performed to green SPPS processes and take a closer look at technologies for modern liquid phase peptide synthesis (LPPS).


One of the major factors motivating manufacturers to green peptide synthesis is recent regulatory developments. One of the most notable is The European Union’s Registration, Evaluation, Authorization, and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) regulation, which requires that “ the most hazardous substances should be substituted with less dangerous ones.”(1) REACH’s standards were raised by the EU again in late 2020, releasing the more comprehensive and impactful “Chemicals Strategy for Sustainability Towards a Toxic-Free Environment.”(2) Similarly, Article 15 of the European Union’s Cosmetics Regulation 1223/2009 prohibits using substances classified a ...