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Effect of vitamin Donbone health in postmenopausal women


*Corresponding author
1. Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA
2. School of Health & Kinesiology, College of Health & Human Sciences,
Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA, USA


Current demographics indicate an increased trend towards aging of the American population. This translates to an increased number of postmenopausal women, who experience a loss of bone mass that can result in osteoporosis. Among the various treatment modalities, vitamin D has been proven to prevent and treat osteoporosis, as it plays a critical role in maintaining skeletal structure. In this review we examine the efficacy of vitamin D, particularly in the form of supplements, in improving bone health and protecting women against osteoporosis. A literature review was conducted using various databases, including PubMed and MEDLINE. Epidemiological data have shown that a safe dose of vitamin D in addition to calcium can effectively reduce risk of fractures and increase bone mineral density. The recommended amount of vitamin D, established at 600 IU for postmenopausal women, can be acquired through sunlight and various food sources, but is best attained through supplements.



Menopause occurs when a woman’s menstrual cycle stops permanently - a biological process that decreases levels of hormones such as estrogen. In the United States, menopause occurs at an average age of 51 and everyday approximately 6,000 women reach menopause. Worldwide, it was estimated that 477 million women were postmenopausal in 2005, and this number is projected to reach 1.1 billion by the year 2025. Of the many physical, mental, and emotional issues faced during menopause, maintaining optimal bone health is a major concern as decreasing levels of estrogen lead to weaker bones. This decreased bone density leads to a high risk for fractures and can ultimately result in postmenopausal osteoporosis in women age ... ...