Lactobacillus: from probiotics to postbiotics – Bioguiding metabolic power of microorganisms
Postbiotics are bioactive metabolites produced by “good bacteria” such as Lactobacillus (i.e. probiotics). In the gut, lactobacillus-produced postbiotics favour the maintenance of the microbiota, improve epithelial cohesion and activate host cells growth. As gut and skin share many characteristics, SILAB hypothesizes that postbiotics can bring beneficial effects when applied to the skin. Hence, its experts in microbiology and biotechnologies selected Lactobacillus (L.) arizonensis, a probiotic strain of plant origin, and reproduced its natural environment to bioguide its postbiotics production. Thanks to this innovative approach, the metabolic power of L. arizonensis allowed the specific bioconversion of jojoba into postbiotics composed of cyclic polyols. Industrial-scale culture of this Lactobacillus has yielded a supernatant enriched in postbiotics with proven efficacy on dry skin.
PRO- PRE- AND POSTBIOTICS: SOME DEFINITIONS
From the scientific discoveries on the human microbiota appeared the notions of probiotics, prebiotics and postbiotics (Figure 1). The knowledge of the precise terminology is very important for those who decide to work on these new concepts. According to the literature and the World Health Organization, here are some key definitions (1, 2):
- Probiotics are living microorganisms such as Lactobacilli or Bifidobacteria that, when administrated in sufficient quantities, have positive effects on the host health. They are more commonly known as “good bacteria”. It is very important to notice that a new term called paraprobiotic recently appeared and refers to dead or lysed microorganisms (3)
- Prebiotics, literally “before the probiotic”, are non-digestible food ingredients that selectively stimulate the growth and/or activity of “good bacteria” that may improve the health of the host;
- Postbiotics, literally “after the probiotic”, are non-viable bacterial products or bioactive metabolites generated by probiotic microor ... ...