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UGA researchers use single molecule of DNA to create world’s smallest diode

Researchers at the University of Georgia and at Ben-Gurion University in Israel have demonstrated for the first time that nanoscale electronic components can be made from single DNA molecules. Their study, published in the journal Nature Chemistry, represents a promising advance in the search for a replacement for the silicon chip.
The finding may eventually lead to smaller, more powerful and more advanced electronic devices, according to the study's lead author, Bingqian Xu.
"For 50 years, we have been able to place more and more computing power onto smaller and smaller chips, but we are now pushing the physical limits of silicon," said Xu, an associate professor in the UGA College of Engineering and an adjunct professor in chemistry and physics. "If silicon-based chips become much smaller, their performance will become unstable and unpredictable."
To find a solution to this challenge, Xu turned to DNA. He says DNA's predictability, diversity and programmability make it a leading candidate for the design of functional electronic devices using single molecules.
Xu and collaborators at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev describe using a single molecule of DNA to create the world's smallest diode. A diode is a component vital to electronic devices that allows current to flow in one direction but prevents its flow in the other direction.
Xu and a team of graduate research assistants at UGA isolated a specifically designed single duplex DNA of 11 base pairs and connected it to an electronic circuit only a few nanometers in size. After the measured current showed no special behavior, the team site-specifically intercalated a small molecule named coralyne into the DNA. They found the current flowing through the DNA was 15 times stronger for negative voltages than for positive voltages, a necessary feature of a diode.
"This finding is quite counterintuitive because the molecular structure is still seemingly symmetrical after coralyne intercalation," Xu said.
A theoretical model developed by Yanantan Dubi of Ben-Gurion University indicated the diode-like behavior of DNA originates from the bias voltage-induced breaking of spatial symmetry inside the DNA molecule after the coralyne is inserted.
"Our discovery can lead to progress in the design and construction of nanoscale electronic elements that are at least 1,000 times smaller than current components," Xu said.

The research is supported by the National Science Foundation.

Source: University of Georgia website


FPS is a leading company in the pharmaceutical and fine chemical fields, developing, manufacturing and installing worldwide its own range of Fine Size Reduction machines and Containment Solutions (sterile and highly toxic API).
Following the enlargement and modernization of the production facility in Fiorenzuola d’Arda-Italy, FPS dedicated a specific area to the new R&D and Test Center. Three ISO8 grade test suites allow the execution of short to medium duration micronization technical tests, starting from laboratory to production quantities.
The center is equipped with up-to-date machines and modern instruments in order to assure product and operator protection during activities to assess process validity / optimization.
Special configuration of micronization equipment can be arranged for dedicated testing on a large range of size reduction machines: Spiral Jet mills – QMills (loop type) – Pin mills – Hammer mills.
Additional services concerning the particle size reduction include:
De-lumping – Co-micronization – Sieving – Blending – Cryogenic Operations – PSD Analysis.
Starting from June 2016, an isolator will be available in the test center for technical test on HPAPI with R&D and Lab Jet Mills, up to PilotMill-6 and Pin Mill-100 units. The isolator will be complete with gravimetric feeder and PLC controls.
The isolator will be exhibited during next Pharmintech and Powtech shows in April.
Rental units are also available to execute test at our Customers premises. The necessary technical support is assured by FPS experienced technicians.
For more information please contact

Your leading partner for highly potent and cytotoxic compounds
With over 45 years of experience, swiss-based Micro-Macinazione S.A. is the most competent provider of Micronization services and equipment for the Pharmaceutical & Fine Chemical industry.

Our commitment to increase the safety level and to protect the health of our employees in combination with a changing regulatory environment, has led us to begin a complete revamping of our 3 production facilities. This project is based on a product segregation strategy and product banding system implementation, based on OEL levels. The new banding system consists of 5 different categories with the following containment levels:

The different containment solutions were designed in-house by our Engineering department and are a clear demonstration of our competence as a contract micronization service provider as well as our capacities to design and produce jet-mills, containment solutions and pneumatic conveyors.

Micromacinazione is also enlarging the offering for NCE’s and HPAPI’s. Since the beginning of this year, 2 new Glove Boxes for 4B products and one Glove Box for 4A Cytotoxic API’s were installed and 2 additional 4A Glove Boxes are going to be available in the coming months.

Fast Lyophilisation on the Genevac Series 3 HT Evaporator was developed to provide a rapid, high-throughput alternative to freeze drying HPLC purification fractions.
Traditional evaporation methods of removing solvents, such as water and acetonitrile, often results in formation of a gum or oil due to solvent interactions with the dissolved sample. Employing a Series 3 HT Evaporator with LyoSpeed™ Fast Lyophilisation technology is enabling pharma labs to now routinely dry HPLC fraction samples to a powder form, such that the samples can then be accurately weighed, easily sub-sampled and redissolved. While standard evaporation works well for most hydrophilic samples, difficulties may arise where the sample cannot dissolve in only water. In such situations, when the organic solvent is removed, the sample sometimes crashes out forming an oil which until now required further processing to achieve the desired dry powder form. For such samples using a Series 3 HT Evaporator, with -75°C condenser and Fast Lyophilisation method, produces powdered samples from even the most difficult to handle compounds with a success rate as high as 95%.


Solvias has announced figures for 2015. Revenues rose to CHF 63.9 million, an increase of 5.6% over the previous year with a significant improvement in profitability. Excluding the impact from the Swiss franc to Euro exchange rate change, growth would have been 7%.
“Solvias continued on a very positive growth trajectory in 2015, despite the challenges posed by the strong Swiss franc and the overall economic situation” said Dr. Karen J. Huebscher, Chief Executive Officer. “We continued to expand into new market segments such as cosmetics, and we extended our geographic footprint. In addition, we saw increased uptake of new products and services resulting from our innovative pipeline, which positions us well for the future. In 2015, Solvias also launched an intense operational excellence program to improve our efficiency and effectiveness and to reinforce our customer orientation across our entire organization”.
Analytical Services grew by 10.1% over prior year driven in particular by Biopharmaceutical Analysis (+19.8%). This was topped by the sales performance of Analytical Technologies with 38.6% growth and Confarma (Hombourg, France) with 17.2% growth in local currencies (+1.5% in CHF).
One of the highlights of 2015 was the expansion in the cosmetics industry. The French Business Unit Confarma acquired several large cosmetic companies as customers, especially in the luxury segment. There is significant upside potential for Solvias in this industry, driven by new legislation on Good Manufacturing Practices for cosmetics. Geographic expansion continued in 2015. Thanks to a strengthened sales organization in the United States and a series of well-received road shows on the West Coast, Solvias raised its profile in the American market and acquired new customers in particular for its Analytical Services. In China, Solvias won new contracts for its catalysis technology from pharmaceutical companies and contract manufacturing organizations. During 2015, the successful integration of Confarma AG resulted in the creation of a new Quality Control (QC) release department.


In 2018, just 2 years hence, Wychem ltd will celebrate its 50th anniversary. A remarkable achievement for a small autonomous UK based niche fine chemical manufacturer.
Founded back in 1968 as a privately owned company Wychem soon established itself as a specialist in halogenation technologies providing products to the fast growing European lithographic ink market. A new owner in 1986, Philipp Brothers US, saw an important change of direction with exposure to the US pharmaceutical market which generated significant advances for the company in new product development, increased capacity and regulatory compliance to support cGMP status enabling the business and the offer model to adapt to meet the expectation of the pharmaceutical market.
The market move towards outsourcing in the new millennium combined with focus on start materials sourcing from lower cost economies required Wychem to recoup and look further afield to develop and realise new opportunities in SE Asia.
Under the present ownership of Isochem SAS, Wychem has grown even more rapidly exploiting the  strong synergies of business model and client base between the two companies and aided by a program of significant investment, Wychem has been launched into a new era of growth and expansion.

DKSH’s Business Unit Performance Materials, a leading Market Expansion Services provider and distributor of specialty chemicals and Hampford Research Inc. (HRI), a specialty chemicals manufacturer, have signed an agreement for DKSH to supply, market, and distribute HRI’s photoactive technology product portfolio in North America, Europe and Asia.
HRI specializes in producing high purity chemicals for end use applications in the electronics, dental, personal care, printing and imaging as well as adhesives industries worldwide.
The agreement includes HRI’s entire UV/EB line, including photo acid generators, photo initiators, monomers and co-initiators as well as future products created from customer-specific product development. HRI has chosen to work with DKSH for its first-class reputation in providing integrated and tailored Market Expansion Services along the entire value chain, as well as for its comprehensive global network and strong customer base in the specialty chemicals industry worldwide.
Carole Lin, Global Business Development Manager, Specialty Chemicals Industry at DKSH added: “We are very pleased that Hampford Research has chosen DKSH as their Market Expansion Services partner for their innovative photoactive technology. We look forward to introducing their exciting product range to our extensive global customer base and to developing a successful long-term partnership”.


Durham based leading chemical research and development company High Force Research is to open a new 1018 sq ft laboratory at the Wilton Centre in Redcar.
Located in the heart of the North East chemical industry and sited on a 75 acre world-renowned business and science park, the new fully equipped laboratory features six chemical fume cupboards and advanced research facilities custom designed for chemical development. There is scope for future expansion at Wilton as the Bowburn facility is at full capacity. Founded nearly three decades ago in 1988, Durham based High Force Research is one of the UK’s longest established chemical research companies. Middlesbrough is home to many chemicals companies including, Huntsman, Chemoxy, Fine Organics and Banner Chemicals Group.
High Force Research’s Dr Valentine said: “We will be staffed from day one with full time chemists based on site, two of whom are newly qualified PhD students from Newcastle University. We are hoping to recruit more chemists in the near future to help with our expansion plans at Wilton.
“The location is great with excellent facilities designed for Chemical Research companies including plentiful parking, a restaurant, gym and open parkland”.
He continued, “With around ninety research oriented businesses onsite we feel that the location also provides us with increased networking and collaboration possibilities”.
Wilton Centre’s site director, Steve Duffield, said that it was good news to be welcoming such a prestigious new tenant to the Centre. “High Force Research is a well-established company and is creating a number of highly skilled positions that will attract well-qualified people to the area and help to boost the long term prospects of the Teesside economy.
“We are very proud that the company has chosen to expand its operations here”.


Purolite Life Sciences is fully committed to meet the demands of our customers. Following the great success and uptake of the launch of Praesto™ Protein A affinity and ion exchange resins, we are proud to announce the completion of a $3M investment expanding both our pilot plant and R&D facilities at our Llantrisant Centre of Excellence in Wales. This expansion, taking annual agarose capacity to 3,000 L, helps us address today’s customer demand for large orders and short lead times for chromatography resins.
Phase three of the pilot plant expansion, occurring this summer, will further increase production capacity and lead up to our state-of-the-art 100,000 L agarose manufacturing facility coming on line early 2017.

As part of a long term strategy to meet increasing customer demands, CordenPharma has completed two additional key investments to strengthen its development and manufacturing capabilities for Drug Product service offerings across its Highly Potent, Oncology and Injectables Platforms.
Firstly, CordenPharma is pleased to announce the completion and approval of its small-scale aseptic filling line in CordenPharma Caponago (IT). This addition to the existing terminal sterilization capabilities of the manufacturing facility will support customer development and commercial programs by providing expert service in aseptic-filling of liquid and lyophilized vials and pre-filled syringes for small molecules and peptides.
CordenPharma is additionally pleased to announce the completion and approval of expanded Development Capabilities (CTD2) for mid-scale (up to 20 kg) contained capacity of highly potent and oncology oral dosage forms in its CordenPharma Plankstadt (DE) manufacturing facility. This new and expanded capability provides customers a complete offering in the contained manufacturing of oral dosage from grams to 150 Kg.
Ernesto Petroselli, President of CordenPharma International comments, “These new investments in oral and aseptic development capacities strengthen our ability to serve customers earlier in the pharmaceutical value chain. They are a clear indication of our overall commitment in responding to customers’ needs and are perfect complements to our existing API and Drug Product service offerings within our Highly Potent, Oncology and Injectables Platforms.
In addition, we anticipate further capacity expansion in the second half of 2016 by the completion of a second pharmaceutical oncology suite in CordenPharma Latina (IT) to provide extended supply chain manufacturing services spanning development to commercial scale.”
These expansions enhance CordenPharma’s service offerings in the sterile and containment fields spanning from development to well-established worldwide commercial supply.

Swiss contract research and service provider Solvias have announced the launch of a new quality control (qc) department. This will significantly boost the company’s capacity to serve as a “one-stop shop” with fast, high-quality and cost-effective QC, complementing Solvias’ established reputation in cutting-edge R&D.
With the full integration of the QC-release team from the Swiss-based Confarma AG (part of the acquisition of Confarma in 2013), Solvias has significantly expanded its physical-chemical Quality Control capabilities for both small molecules and biopharmaceuticals.
Combining cutting-edge research and development in analyticsand an expanded QC capacity under one roof makes it easier for customers to consolidate outsourcing activities and simplifies the process of preparing for regulatory audits. And if unexpected issues surface during the QC process – for example, leaching from packaging materials – Solvias’ R&D expertise is immediately available to solve the problem.
The QC department will concentrate on the analysis of Phase III and commercial products, including release and stability testing. The new dedicated QC department in Kaiseraugst offers a wide range of QC technologies, covering 95% of compendial methods (Ph. Eur., USP and JP), including the following:
Chromatographic technics, including UHPLC, spectroscopic methods as well as classical wet chemistry
Galenical tests for all dosage forms
Aerodynamic particle sizing (e.g. NGI for inhalers)
Enzyme activities
With the new QC department, Solvias is ideally positioned to support its clients’ increasingly stringent quality and safety standards and the expanding demands of regulatory authorities. And since every customer’s QC needs are different, Solvias staff-members are trained to be flexible and work with each client to find the most efficient solutions. In addition to physical-chemical testing at its headquarters in Kaiseraugst, Solvias maintains a hub for microbiological QC at its French affiliate Confarma in Hombourg.


Genevac Series 3 HT evaporators provide an ideal solution for evaporation bottlenecks in high throughput medicinal chemistry, natural product and production laboratories that generate large numbers of samples for processing.
Compact in design and offering a very high capacity for a wide range of sample formats including microplates, vials, and fraction collection tubes, Series 3 HT evaporators offer the versatility and productivity to assist chemists tasked with drying large numbers of samples. The high-throughput design of a Series 3 HT evaporator allows up to 48 shallow-well microplates to be dried down at the same time, while capacity for standard 16 x 100mm fraction collector tubes is an outstanding 288 tubes per run. To increase throughput further several Series 3 HT evaporators may be run in parallel on an Infinity trolley system. Infinity is a modular trolley, designed to accommodate multiple Genevac evaporators in the optimum configuration to minimise the footprint of the supported system, freeing valuable bench or fume hood space and allowing the system to be moved easily for service access.
Available in HT-12 and HT-6 configurations, Genevac Series 3 HT evaporators are the system of choice for high throughput sample drying because of their high sample capacity, unique technology that eliminates cross contamination due to sample bumping and automated monitoring of temperature and pressure to prevent sample degradation. Benefiting from Genevac’s 25+ years of designing centrifugal evaporators, Series 3 HT systems are easy to use, reliable, robust and safe to both operator and sample integrity.


International Chemical Investors Group (ICIG) and Novartis Group have entered into an agreement under which ICIG will acquire all of the shares in Sandoz Industrial Products GmbH, a Frankfurt-Höchst based manufacturer of enzyme-based fermentation products and intermediates for the pharmaceutical industry, especially for use in antibiotics. Closing of the transaction is anticipated to occur on 1 April 2016.
Sandoz’s decision to withdraw from the production of intermediates for 7-ACA antibiotics for external customers in May 2015 initiated a dual track process preparing the site for a sale and securing its customer base while alternatively considering a shutdown of its operation at the Industriepark Höchst.
With this agreement, Sandoz Industrial Products GmbH will maintain its operations associated with CordenPharma, the pharma platform of ICIG. The business will be complementary to both ICIG’s pharma activities as well as to its fine chemicals activities within the WeylChem Group. The site represents an important building block for further expansion into fermentation-based production technology for ICIG.
With the acquisition of the Sandoz Höchst site, CordenPharma will become one of the major suppliers of 7-ACA to customers worldwide. CordenPharma will also use the material in-house for its own antibiotics value chain at its Latina site in Italy. “The new site will expand CordenPharma’s operations, growing its enzymes-based manufacturing portfolio and dedicated antibiotics technology platform and will add state-of-the-art capabilities in microbial fermentation and enzymatic reactions to WeylChem’s extensive non-GMP production capabilities as well”, says Dr. Achim Riemann, Managing Director of ICIG. “With the newly acquired plant at the Höchst site, ICIG further increases its footprint in the Frankfurt Rhine-Main area. We are focused on the continuation and further development of the business, as we have successfully demonstrated in many other transactions“, adds Patrick Schnitzer, Managing Director of ICIG.

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