In this Monographic Special issue on Active and Hi-Tech Ingredients we have decided to publish a Panel on Active ingredients. We have asked key players to spend a few words on how active ingredients can give the Skin Equilibrium, Protection, Hydration, Nutrition. Each participant has chosen one-two topics to concentrate on and has been invited to answer a specific question:
Taking into consideration the Innovation in the cosmetic field, how do you help skin that is ageing:
with what actives, textures, cosmetic forms?

The following players have joined this initiative:

Charlotte d’Erceville-Dumond

Sustainable Innovation Manager - BASF



Healthy living is a daily challenge: both women and men want to give their skin special care and protection from environmental influences, but without causing any detriment to the planet. 

Our lifestyles have changed, and we must not forget how our day-to-day choices can impact the future of the earth. Consumers are increasingly searching for more ethical cosmetic products that are as healthy for the planet as they are for their skin.
That’s the starting point of our work. Capitalizing on our experience acquired with the Argan programme (1), we put all efforts to select the resource that would fit with our ambition: high biological activities and sustainable use of the resource to generate a positive impact on the supply chain development.

We selected rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) (2), a well-known fruit in Asia that grows in the humid tropic. To reach our requirement regarding plant supply, we built a new dedicated supply chain in cooperation with a long-standing local partner in Vietnam. We particularly work on sourcing practices to ensure sustainable use of the resource and respect of local actors. We specifically selected local partners for their commitment to agricultural practices that are compatible with organic farming certifications. As a result, our local partner operates the first rambutan garden to be certified as organic in Vietnam. 

Based on these solid requirements, we developed a range of efficient bioactives based on the rambutan tree (Java variety). This edible fruit is covered by hairy peel and is naturally rich in iron, vitamin C (3), fibre and antioxidants. We also found that other unused parts of the rambutan plant – besides the fruit itself – possess properties that may be of benefit to the skin (leaf, peel, seed). We valorise the resource to design new, greener beauty concepts and fulfil global beauty market demands and consumer expectations.


  1. Stussi I. et al, Argania spinosa – How ecological farming, fair trade and sustainability can drive the research for new cosmetic active ingredients. Seifen Öle Fette Wachse 10/2015 (131), pp. 35-46.
  2. Sukmandari N.S. et al, A Review on Nephelium lappaceum L. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology, 8/2017 (10), pp. 2819-2827.
  3. Kim, M.K., Kim, M.Y., Lee, K.G., Categorization of fruits according to their content of polyphenols and vitamin C, antiradical activity, and quality parameters. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 7/2017 (42), e13421.


Taking into consideration the Innovation in the cosmetic field, how do you help skin that is ageing: with what actives, textures, cosmetic forms?

Charlotte d’Erceville-Dumond

Innovation is not just about science, but also about improving the way to develop ingredients and offering products that have been created to answer a responsible way to consume. That is why we developed three bioactives, based on the rambutan resource.

We firstly developed an extract of rambutan peel and discovered that it could moisturize the skin. The protecting envelope of the juicy fruit (peel) not only delivers hydration to the skin but also provides it with energy. 

It increases phospholipids and long chain ceramide synthesis for an optimal skin barrier function. In vivo, skin hydration is measurable, and improvements were perceived by volunteers. Secondly, we developed an extract of the leaves of rambutan that helps mature skin to rejuvenate. It stimulates both collagen and elastic fibers formation in vitro, increasing skin elasticity and reducing wrinkles appearance in vivo to help the skin look visibly younger.

For hair care, we developed an extract from the seeds of rambutan. It especially increases hair follicle vitality. Moreover, the seed extract enhances the cornified scalp barrier function contributing to water retention. In vivo, the scalp feels noticeably hydrated after just one month of use, and the hair looks and feels healthier and shinier.



Stéphanie Alves

Cosmetic Business Development Manager - Biolie


Pollution is present everywhere in urban areas. Indoor, outside, our skin is exposed to pollution all day long. How can you protect your skin from this constant stress?

Pollution is composed of pesticides, heavy metals, particles and other harmful chemicals that will disrupt skin barrier function and microbiota. It will produce several intracellular damages by oxidative stress, activation of mitochondrial AhR, ATP production decrease and inflammation. In order to test its effects on skin, urban pollution has been collected in the Washington, DC area using a baghouse specially designed for the purpose. The particulate material was collected over a period greater than 12 months and represents a time-integrated sample. While the sample is not intended to be representative of the area in which it was collected, it should generally typify atmospheric particulate matter obtained from an urban area. This sample is a standard approved by FDA, representative of urban pollution, including all type of molecules (not only heavy metals or particles).

Under normal conditions, skin cells like epidermal keratinocytes produce energy via mitochondria. This ATP is used to equilibrate electrolytes into the cells, allows exchanges in & out the cell, as building block for nucleotides or as direct energy for chemical transformations. Under pollution and stress conditions, ATP production decreases, thus decreasing cell efficiency. Pollution also degrades DNA, deteriorating genetic code and protein synthesis.

BIOLIE has developed a lime extract (INCI: water (and) Propanediol (and) Citrus aurantifolia (lime) fruit extract) thanks to its enzymatic extraction process. Rich in citroflavonoïds and saccharides, this active works in & out of skin to fight against pollution and reduce cell damage. Precisely, it fights by increasing ATP production and decreasing DNA damage.

Pollution sample has been tested on normal human epidermal keratinocytes with or without lime extract and compared to control. Pollution increases Olive Tail Moment on cell DNA by 320% while lime extract at 1% fights against 100% of DNA damage (p<0,01 student test). In a second test, pollution sample decreases ATP production on cells, decreasing energy and all associated metabolisms while lime extract at 1% stimulates ATP production by 30%
(p<0,05 student test).

Patricia Moreira
Skin Care Manager Chemyunion







Water is elemental to the beauty and function of the skin, providing for a flexible body covering of protein mixed with intercellular lipids. One of the main factors responsible for skin dehydration refers to changes in the skin barrier. The stratum corneum, which contributes to skin barrier function is a dynamic and metabolically interactive tissue which comprises about 60% structural proteins, 20% water, and 20% lipids. Stratum corneum is a layer of protein-enriched corneocytes embedded in a lipid-enriched, intercellular matrix, the so called “bricks and mortar” model.

Hyaluronic acid, a major water-binding component of the dermis and component of the glycosaminoglycans (GAG) class, has been recently shown to play a role in the barrier function and hydration of the stratum corneum. Another important component is glycerol, which acts as an endogenous humectant, and recently has been identified as another component of stratum corneum. In addition, a water-transporting protein named aquaporin-3, expressed from the basal layer up to one cell layer below the stratum corneum, acts to facilitate the movement of water between these layers in order to maintain a constant hydration level in the viable epidermis. 

When the barrier function and water-retention ability of the stratum corneum are compromised, skin dryness can develop, at a point that the stratum corneum becomes less flexible and begins to crack or fissure. The key signal for barrier repair is transepidermal water loss (TEWL).

It is important to mention that most of the moisturizers only temporarily recovers water levels, but do not restore skin barrier. Strategies for skin moisturization may include the use of occlusion agents, humectants and biological moisturizers. Oils or butters provide occlusion in which a film is formed on the surface of the skin avoiding the water loss, while humectants as glycerin and urea adsorb water on the surface of the skin and provide immediate hydration of the stratum corneum. However, both strategies are temporary and will disappear as soon as they are removed from the skin. 

Biological moisturizers, on the other hand, will act on skin physiology stimulating it to restore its barrier, improving water flow within the epidermis and dermis while supplying immediate hydration and long-lasting results. Based on a concept of intelligent water distribution and maintenance in the skin, some ingredients had been developed to act on the major causes of skin dehydration, which is also related to skin aging process.

A class of polysaccharide that has been receiving attention is the arabinogalactan, which consists of densely branched high-molecular weight polysaccharides. In nature, they are found in many plants. Arabinogalactans can stimulate the production of skin barrier, acquaporins-3 as well as collagen and elastin being an excellent option as a biological moisturizer.


Taking into consideration the Innovation in the cosmetic field, how do you help skin that is ageing: with what actives, textures, cosmetic forms?

Patricia Moreira - Chemyunion

The least the skin needs is to be hydrated. Products that maintain the level of water inside the skin (where it is necessary for the proper functioning of the metabolism) should be present on any and all anti-aging products. After ensuring its hydration, the skin needs active ingredients that accelerate some physiological processes such as cell proliferation and collagen synthesis or slow down other processes such as the destruction of the extracellular matrix and cellular senescence.

While younger people prefer lighter creams, our aging skin becomes drier and therefore needs richer and slightly heavier textures. This also occurs when we are subjected to more rigorous winters or drier regions that end up adapting better to the creamier and heavier textures like butters. However, textures and sensory are always a matter of personal preference despite the indication based on the skin needs.


Julie Droux
Senior Technical Marketing Specialist
Clariant Active Ingredients






Skin is a very efficient biological protective barrier against pollutants and environmental toxins. However, faced with constantly increasing air pollution, and ever-more toxin-loaded foodstuffs and household products in modern lives, it is little wonder that its natural ability to neutralize effects, detoxify and protect itself is hindered. Add the endogenous stress arising from today’s demanding, 24/7 connected lifestyle, and you’ve yet more culprits disrupting the balance – the homeostasis. Familiar signs include among others premature skin aging, irritation and dryness.

In view of this overload of aggressors and consequences, Clariant Active Ingredients intensively focused research and product development on finding solutions to oxidative stress, defined as an overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and to a poor detoxification level. The result is two individual active ingredients that give skin what it needs to become more resilient, so that it can naturally protect itself and self-balance.

The inspiration for our ingredient based on a Camelia japonica flower extract, which acts on the homeostasis after too much oxidative stress leads to a disequilibrium, was drawn from analysis of the impact of environmental pollutants, and our desire to limit skin damage, protecting skin’s functions.
This pollutant broad spectrum challenger inhibits ROS induced by PM 2.5 and PM 10, including heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons respectively generated by industrial and vehicle emissions, and found in cigarette smoke. 

By limiting the oxidative stress induced, our ingredient based on a Camelia japonica flower extract provides extreme protection against air pollution and associated effects. In the long term, it helps to delay visible consequences of a lack of equilibrium, achieving a decrease in wrinkles by up to -16%, improvement of skin roughness and increase in hydration by 8%.

Another solution specifically addresses toxins altering natural cell and tissue metabolism, causing imbalance and skin damage. Studies have highlighted the link between excessive ROS, related to stress, toxins, pollutants and a poor detoxification level, and overstimulation of sebocytes (1,2).
The results are skin disorders and an impact on complexion.

This ingredient helps skin to (re)-educate itself to self-balance and self-detoxify. The natural active is made of extracts known for their potential in revitalizing the detoxification process: bioflavonoids from citrus, polyphenols from aloe and sulforaphane from broccoli. BioDTox encourages toxin excretion. Additionally, it reduces pollutants adhesion on the skin to help clean pores, reduce sebum, and exfoliate softly for an improved complexion.


  1. Acne vulgaris: the role of oxidative stress and the potential therapeutic value of local and systemic antioxidants. Journal of Drugs in Dermatology. 11(6): 742-6 (2012).
  2. Lipid Mediators in Acne. Mediators of inflammation. (2010).


Taking into consideration the Innovation in the cosmetic field, how do you help skin that is ageing: with what actives, textures, cosmetic forms?

Julie Droux - Clariant Active Ingredients

Clariant Active Ingredients offers formulators an unconventional approach to counter aging by targeting a root cause of accelerated aging – disruption to the circadian rhythm. 

The circadian rhythm is a 24-hour biological clock that tells our body what to do when, depending on day and night cycles. Through extensive research, we have identified that key skin cell metabolism processes follow a 24-hour rhythm. Protection and detoxification mechanisms are weakened and become less efficient when skin’s natural circadian rhythm is disrupted. 

During a good night’s rest skin would normally repair itself and specific biological pathways only work during the night. Other functions should be activated during day time. If that rhythm is deregulated, e.g. through poor sleep quality or intense lifestyle, skin becomes imbalanced. This leads to dull complexion, and signs of fatigue such as dark circles.

In the long-term, the impact of deregulated biological functions results in longer recovery and age-related changes to skin structure could be accelerated.

Our active based on a Lespedeza capitata extract resynchronizes the skin with its circadian rhythm, getting it back on track so that the biological functions can do their job. Skin cells are more willing to fight stress and aggression results, and are more prepared to receive the aggression.



Verna Talcott
Beauty Care North America Regional Market Leader Dow Home & Personal Care






Consumers have become increasingly concerned with the effects of external forces on skin that may lead to premature aging. Recognizing the need for skin care products that both mask imperfections and offer protection, Dow launched a cosmetic ingredient to help consumers protect themselves from reactive oxygen species generated from external aggressive factors to keep their skin healthy as they age.

This novel ingredient traps selectively Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) to avert their damaging effects. The patented technology passively traps the ROS without sacrifice, which helps enhance efficiency versus conventional ingredients. Advantages of the new solution includes softening the appearance of wrinkles, delivering skin smoothing effects, promoting skin radiance, and good photo-stability and thermal stability. The ingredient can be used in a number of products, including facial care products, leave-on skin care, eye serums and color cosmetics.

To test the effectiveness of the new ingredient, clinical studies were conducted to observe the softening of fine lines and wrinkles in comparison to Retinol. The cosmetic ingredient is deemed more effective with observations starting at 28 days compared to Retinol at 84 days. The team also observed reduction in roughness of skin resulting in skin smoothness appearance as well.

Consumers desire hydrating products without the greasy, heavy after feel that tends to follow.
To help satisfy this need, Dow created a new rheology modifier to enable formulations with a light, non-greasy skin-feel that can be delivered in a wide range of textures, from body lotions to light facial care cream. 

This rheology modifier offers instant thickening to rapidly and easily build water viscosity. It easily inverts when blended with water to structure formulations and disperse natural oils, such as Marula Oil, Meadowfoam seed oil, and Sweet Almond oils that may provide nourishment and lock in moisture in the skin, enabling formulation flexibility and ease.

Creative innovative formulations may be made by combining Dow’s hydro elastomer blend with moisturizing ingredients such as hyaluronic acid, glycerin, niacinamide, and sunflower oil. It can also be used with water soluble actives including Vitamin C and Aloe Vera.  From silky-smooth, refreshing moisturizers, the hydro elastomer blend can enable the development of skin products that tantalize consumers.

Taking into consideration the Innovation in the cosmetic field, how do you help skin that is ageing: with what actives, textures, cosmetic forms?

Verna Talcott
Dow Home & Personal Care

Combatting aging has become a top priority for both younger and older generations as each want to put their best face forward. Younger generations are concerned with achieving a flawless look for social media while older generations are on the lookout for products that can immediately blend away their imperfections for a more youthful appearance. 

To achieve a soft focus photo-ready finish to the skin, Dow has a portfolio of optical appearance solutions that may be used to immediately mask and blur imperfections in the skin, minimize the appearance of pores, absorb sebum and reduce redness. The portfolio includes a winning elastomer blend ingredient, recognized at 2018 PChI with a Foundation Award for functional ingredient.

Dow has also recently launched a new cosmetic ingredient, a novel facial care technology for age well solutions that lets consumers embrace skin aging as a blessing and better protect themselves from external reactive oxygen species generated by aggressive factors, including sun, pollution and smoking, to keep their skin healthy. Advantages of the new solution includes softening the appearance of wrinkles, delivering skin smoothing effects, promoting skin radiance, and good photo-stability and thermal stability.



Mathias Gempeler
Global Head Science & Promotion Skin Care
DSM Nutritional products






The number of people living in big metropolitan areas will continue to grow over the coming years. Consequently, they will continuously be exposed to urban pollution and an increasingly hectic 24/7 lifestyle. At the same time, they are able to gain easy access to information and are willing to take healthcare more into their own hands. By monitoring, maintaining, and improving their physical and beauty development, they are more open to new cosmetic solutions with proven activity. Driven by a booming market for surgical operations and non-surgical, semi-invasive solutions, such as Botox® and hyaluronan injections, there is an increasing demand for highly efficient skin care products with the pharma label attached to them. One of our research focuses is on skin pathways that are outbalanced under stress and as we age. We have identified the cortisol pathway to be involved. The body produces cortisol, known as the “stress hormone”, which is used as a natural response to stress. In small amounts, and of short duration, it is a healthy coping mechanism. But on a long-term basis persistently high levels of cortisol can be damaging to the skin. The more often we are stressed, the higher our cortisol levels rise. However, when cortisol levels are balanced it is reflected on the skin and makes it look better. By taking a rational design approach, we were able to design a specific 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 inhibitor (INCI: Biphenyl Azepanyl Methanone) that reduces cortisol levels accumulated by stress (1). This unique and innovative approach helps to rebalance cortisol levels, particularly in keratinocytes and fibroblast, and prevents UV-induced collagen III damage. Moreover, in a human study we were able to show that after applying 20ppm Biphenyl Azepanyl Methanone for 12 weeks, skin density significantly increased, elasticity and skin barrier functionality were boosted and skin wrinkles visibly diminished. Another target are serine proteases in the skin. Serine proteases play a crucial role in the desquamation process and in the maintenance of skin barrier equilibrium. In dry and irritated skin plasminogen is over-expressed and activated to plasmin by urokinase. Urokinase itself is immediately activated in the stratum corneum after barrier disruption. Plasmin leads to an increasing damage of the connections between the corneocytes and negatively affects the cornified envelope. In addition, plasmin activates MMP’s leading to increased levels of inflammatory cytokines. Based on more than 30 years of experience in the synthesis of selective serine protease inhibitors, we were able to synthesize a selective plasmin inhibitor (Benzylsulfonyl D-Serylhomophenylalanine Amidinobenzamide Acetate in a multistep process. Studies have proven a rebalancing of interleukin 8 (IL8) and CXCL5 as well as down-regulation of MMP 9.
In human studies the molecule shows a proven efficacy on the skin barrier by improving resilience under repeated stress (2).


  1. Boudon SM, Vuorinen A, Geotti-Bianchini P, Wandeler E, Kratschmar DV, Heidl M, et al. (2017) Novel 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 inhibitors reduce cortisol levels in keratinocytes and improve dermal collagen content in human ex vivo skin after exposure to cortisone and UV. PLoS ONE 12(2): e0171079. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0171079
  2. R Voegeli, P Wikström, R Campiche, T Steinmetzer, E Jackson, M Gempeler, D Imfeld and AV Rawlings The effects of benzylsulfonyl-D-Ser-homoPhe-(4-amidinobenzylamide), a dual plasmin and urokinase inhibitor, on facial skin barrier function in subjects with sensitive skin Int J Cosmet Sci 39(2):109-120, 2017


Taking into consideration the Innovation in the cosmetic field, how do you help skin that is ageing: with what actives, textures, cosmetic forms?

Mathias Gempeler

DSM Nutritional products

Social media and the access and availability of online information has changed the cosmetic market but also the consumers’ approach in terms of choosing their preferred products. We do believe it is important to have a voice in social media and interact closely with customers and consumers alike. As a company involved in nutrition and health we have identified a bigger trend which is called medical beauty. There is an increasing demand for surgical and non-surgical semi-invasive solutions, such as hyaluronic and Botox injections. Amongst young people prevention becomes more and more important and drives the demand for early interventions. This trend offers increasing opportunities also for topical treatments providing visible anti-ageing benefits. With our SYN-PEPTIDES technology and selected vitamins, such as Retinol and Niacinamide, we offer ingredient-based solutions that meet the trend for visibly proven effects. In addition, we see big opportunities with the skin microbiome. This vast microcosm of life, the invisible layer of bacteria that lives on our skin, is not only mostly harmless but is necessary to a healthy skin. The bacteria on our skin all serve specific purposes, as soon as this microcosm gets out of balance, it may lead to skin irritation, acne, or an overall poor skin appearance. Combining our expertise in the field of skin biology and the microbiome we are working on the next generation skin care solutions that will offer clear benefits to the skin.



Liki von Oppen-Bezalel

VP Business Development and Marketing IBR
IFF Lucas Meyer



Environmental pollutants including heavy metals and other toxic compounds such as PAHs and aldehydes are increasingly abundant in our urbanised and industrialised environments. High energy light including UV and the emerging environmental pollutant in recent years, blue light are of concern too. Blue light or high-energy visible light (HEV) (390 to 500 nm) is emitted from many artificial light sources, such as blue LED, and from direct sunlight.


Pollutants are known to have detrimental effects on our skin and body and lead to various illnesses such as respiratory diseases, headaches, asthma, skin rashes and more. Our appearance however is the first to be affected, with early signs of ageing, wrinkles, pigmentation spots, disrupted barrier, overall dryness and skin imperfections all associated with polluted environments.


The ability of the skin to defend itself against pollution is limited. One may assist it using agents that support and help fighting the damage inflicted.


Some ways to defend and assist our skin to be healthy and healthy looking are:

  • Helping skin hydration and repair by reinforcing and strengthening the skin barrier
  • Protecting from and preventing the penetration of pollutants and high energy light
  • Detoxifying and activating of our natural skin detoxification systems to neutralize pollutants and the harmful molecules
  • Repairing and reversing pollution- and sun-generated damage.


One of the newly launched actives by IBR, an extract of Inula helenium, may help prevent, repair and reverse the damaging effects of pollution on the skin via multiple mechanisms of action. The active demonstrated capability to help detoxification and deactivation of pollutants via reduction of HEV-induced ROS production, chelation capacity of heavy metals; and increasing viability of micro algae in the presence of pollution such as gasoline and aldehydes, partially via detoxification and pre-biotic benefits. 


According to results of a clinical study (1) in a smoking environment (cigarette smokers), reduction of typical early signs of ageing has been achieved using a formula containing 1% IBR’s Inula helenium extract vs. placebo. Lightening of skin tone and evening pigmentation by an average of 25% at day 28, a significant reduction in wrinkle count, improving skin elasticity and barrier function (reduced TEWL) after 14 and 28 days of use vs. placebo were shown.


Actives such as the IBR’s Inula helenium extract are offering a natural and innovative solution to relieve and repair the effects of pollution on the skin and the appearance of early signs of aging for beautiful, balanced and healthy looking skin.



  1. Personal Care Europe, April 2018, pp. 118-120


Taking into consideration the Innovation in the cosmetic field, how do you help skin that is ageing: with what actives, textures, cosmetic forms?

Liki von Oppen-Bezalel

IFF Lucas Meyer

Actives are key in helping skin that is aging both naturally and prematurely. Helping the skin to age gracefully as well as slowdown intrinsic and extrinsic aging processes is fundamental.

Affecting intrinsic aging with actives like the Narcissus Tazetta Bulb Extract and Leucojum Aestivum Bulb Extract that naturally slow down aging by helping to preserve telomers longer.

These actives, rich with Dormins, slowdown cell proliferation and energizing the cells at the same time with more ATP production. Resulting in wrinkles reduction, even tone and a younger looking skin.

Other actives protect and prevent oxidative and photo damage which are external factors leading to premature aging. Such anti-oxidants usually relieve inflammation, blemish and sensitive skin too. Our date seed extract, is a perfect example.

Helping and maintaining skin hydration as fundamental factor for healthy appearance. This can be done with appropriate formula and functional ingredients or using actives. Actives will help reinforcing the skin barrier, by strengthening and connecting its cells and extracellular components (for example - jojoba leaf extract and latest launch of Inula helenium extract).

Last, eliminating signs of aging instantly, using smart optical effects is doable too. Fluorescence in blue (an extract from the dragon fruit) and green (colorless carotenoids, phytoene and phytofluene) under UV (sun) light provides an invisible (but noticeable) instant color correction for brighter, lighter and more radiant appearance. These effects happening using actual active ingredients, the long-term use will provide the benefits, while customer gratification from the immediate effects is fulfilled.



Julia Comas, Alicia Gimenez
Lipotec™ Active Ingredients







The skin is constantly exposed to environmental stress that negatively affects its appearance. One of the most evident environmental aggressors is UV radiation from the sun, which is believed to lead to skin photoaging, in the form of wrinkles, roughness, sagginess, skin thickening and dark spots. Beyond UV radiation, the sun also emits other harmful radiations, such as blue and infrared light, that penetrate deeper into the dermis and contribute to cutaneous aging as well. Blue light can also be commonly found indoors. Electronic devices, such as computers, TVs, smartphones and tablets, which are present in many people’s daily lives, emit artificial blue light and contribute to negatively impact our skin appearance.

Obtained through biotechnology from a radiation-resistant microorganism able to adapt and survive to high radiations, the new extract responds to the current demand of photoprotection from environmental stressors, such as UV, blue and infrared light, while helping obtaining a more resilient skin due to its additional ability to prepare the skin from light-exposure and repair it afterwards.  

The ingredient showed to activate skin opsins (opsin 2), considered as epidermal photosensors that could facilitate the skin perception of light. It also promoted the activation of skin adaptive responses, such as the induction of lipid accumulation, DNA repair pathways and antioxidant defenses, that help prepare the skin for the future exposure to light.  In the presence of solar and artificial blue light, the active ingredient increased cell survival, offering a double photoprotective effect. Besides, it also protected the extracellular matrix against photodamage, while stimulating the synthesis of new collagen. 

A clinical study* on 20 female volunteers, who were active users of blue light emitting devices, was also performed under the summer sun of Portugal. The biotechnological ingredient showed to improve the appearance of solar and artificial blue light-exposed skin by reducing the number of brown spots and not yet visible spots (UV spots), and by minimizing the appearance of wrinkles after the treatment.

The ingredient is a good candidate to incorporate into preparations that offer a daily protection, not only from the sun outdoors, but also from the blue light-emitting devices indoors. Moreover, it can be added into anti-aging skin care products intended to achieve a younger looking complexion, even after light exposure.



*20 female volunteers applied a cream containing 2% of a solution with the biotechnological ingredient on half face and a placebo cream on the other half, twice a day for three months. During the first month, they applied the cream while avoiding sun exposure, to allow the skin to adapt. After these first 28 days, they continued to apply the cream and they were daily exposed to both blue light from electronic devices and sunlight. Different parameters related to photoaging were evaluated before and after the two months of summer.


Taking into consideration the Innovation in the cosmetic field, how do you help skin that is ageing: with what actives, textures, cosmetic forms?

Julia Comas and Alicia Gimenez

Lipotec™ Active Ingredients

Skincare trends go toward simplified/quicker routines, personalized and easier-to-use products with visible and fast results. We associate this with skin-type specific textures to help aging skin. 

Fresh-made serum boosters delivered in a vial, particularly recommended for oily to combination skin, or for layering before make-up, help protect sensitive active ingredients to deliver the highest dose of fresh mixed products. Single-dose biodegradable capsules are another example of personalized, concentrated and simplified formulation, more suitable for dry skin. The vegetal capsule releases a silky oil serum that nourishes and restores the skin.

In these vials and capsules we can incorporate the most innovative anti-aging active ingredients. Prevention is the new anti-aging strategy and today’s consumers, especially the younger ones, are concerned about the damaging effects of the environment and their lifestyle. To fight pollution-induced premature aging, we combined different technologies and developed an antipollution ingredient. It protects urban skin and its antioxidative defenses while reducing dullness and dark spots for a better complexion. To help the skin adapt to new times, where living without light-emitting devices is inconceivable, we created a biotechnological ingredient. Obtained by biotechnology from a radiation-resistant microorganism, it protects against solar and blue light and helps reduce the main signs of photoaging: spots, wrinkles and roughness.



Míriam Mateu
Product Manager LipoTrue







Skin beauty is skin balance as well. External and internal pollution, seasonal changes, stress or severe lack of sleep may lead to dry, rough and dull skin with dark spots.

The Stratum Corneum (SC) is crucial in the maintenance of the water equilibrium in the skin. It is composed of proteins and lipids, which are responsible for the efficient barrier function and the regulation of the epidermal permeability and homeostasis in the skin. However, when this composition is altered, these properties are compromised and the skin becomes less flexible and begins to crack leading to dry, rough and flaky skin. In addition, the SC contains the Natural Moisturizing Factor (NMF) which allows the skin to retain moisture and it contributes to the overall maintenance of the acid mantle.

Furthermore, the antioxidant/oxidant balance is impaired by the constant exposure to both external and internal pollutants that increases the content of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in the skin increasing oxidative stress. Antioxidant substances are able to keep the skin clear of radical species that cause dark spots, hyperpigmentation, inflammation, dullness, and loss of elasticity. However, an excess of free radicals affects and damages DNA, proteins, and lipids through several reactions like glycation and oxidation.

Additionally, metabolic reaction efficiency is reduced with age and continuously produce ROS as by-products leading to oxidative stress and inflammation which leads to further oxidant species. This could be named as internal pollution.

The skin owns the mechanisms to preserve its equilibrium, but the constant struggle with external and internal aggressors makes it difficult to cope.

Balanced skin is healthy and luminous. We suggest using an active ingredient with notable barrier repairing properties such as our Bacillus Ferment, which increases the synthesis of the proteins and lipids involved in the skin barrier function and the precursor of the NMF, to help the skin to keep the normal water homeostasis and pH. As for the maintenance of the antioxidant/oxidant balance, a good antioxidant is key. For example, our antioxidant peptide (Acetyl Tetrapeptide-2) proved to be able to cope with all types of pollution (external, indoor, and internal) by decreasing oxidant species and boosting endogenous antioxidants.

Taking into consideration the Innovation in the cosmetic field, how do you help skin that is ageing: with what actives, textures, cosmetic forms?

Míriam Mateu - LipoTrue

Traditionally an aging skin is tackled only by collagen boosters and maybe aiming also at dark spots. However, a more global approach should be taken into account.

The first and most crucial step is to protect the skin to delay the appearance of more aging signs, and the key lies in the protection of it. We need protection not only against UV but also IR, blue light and pollution. Indoor pollution and that coming from metabolism are as harmful as urban pollution. The skin barrier function is the first line of defense and hence, it should be in perfect conditions. Thus, we should use ingredients that repair the protein/lipid composition to keep this barrier as an efficient defense. 

The second step in aging skins should be to restore. Extracellular matrix proteins and proteoglycans boosters are essential in this part, taking special attention to the dermo-epidermal matrix junction which plays a key role in the oxygenation and nutrition of the skin which is reduced in aging. Moreover, a good brightening agent is always helpful to even the skin tone of hyperpigmentation and dark spots. Last but not least, it is important to help the cells to renew themselves to revitalize the skin.



Franziska Wandrey, Research and Study Manager
Mibelle Biochemistry







Skin resilience is especially important in order to deal with the various stressful encounters the skin faces each day: fast changes in temperature and humidity as well as pollution, just to name a few. In order to improve skin resilience, Mibelle Biochemistry developed an active ingredient that lets the skin benefit from the extreme resilience properties of moss. Mosses are masters in water retention, rehydration, fast recovery and cold resistance. Although highly resilient, mosses grow slowly and are thus often under protection and cannot be harvested in the wild. To make the adaptation skills of mosses usable for cosmetics, an innovative biotechnology to grow moss cells in a laboratory setting was developed. 

The resulting active ingredient maintains cell nucleus health, a completely novel anti-aging concept. The cell nucleus contains the DNA, the blueprint of the cell and is therefore considered the control center of the cell. In one cell, up to 5 million molecules are transported into and out of the nucleus every second (1, 2)! A timely transport of signaling molecules is crucial for the adaptation of cells to fast changes such as in temperature and humidity. As we age, the transport becomes less efficient and less selective (3) which can lead to less resilient skin. Maintaining the proper stability and shape of the nucleus as well as ensuring an efficient transport into and out of the nucleus can be summarized as the topic of cell nucleus health. 

The moss active ingredient increases the expression of nucleus health markers in aged keratinocytes. Additionally, it improves the adaptation of skin to climatic stresses such as heat and humidity. The efficacy of the moss active ingredient was also tested in a placebo-controlled clinical study on volunteers who spent more than 2 hours per day outside in the summer in Seoul, Korea, where it is humid and hot outside and mostly air conditioned inside. After just 14 days of treatment with 2 % moss active, a significant improvement of skin hydration, TEWL and skin tone homogeneity compared to placebo was observed despite stressful climatic conditions. These data show that the moss active strengthens skin against urban aggressors and climatic changes for a more resilient skin.


  1. GG Maul, L Deaven. Quantitative determination of nuclear pore complexes in cycling cells with differing DNA content. JCB. 1977; 73(3): 748
  2. K Ribbeck, D Görlich. Kinetic analysis of translocation through nuclear pore complexes. EMBO J. 2001; 20(6): 1320–1330
  3. HJ Kim, JP Taylor. Lost in Transportation: Nucleocytoplasmic Transport Defects in ALS and Other Neurodegenerative Diseases. Neuron. 2017; 96(2): 285-297

Taking into consideration the Innovation in the cosmetic field, how do you help skin that is ageing: with what actives, textures, cosmetic forms?

Franziska Wandrey
Mibelle Biochemistry

Cell nucleus health is our newest anti-aging concept which is based on the fact that a timely transport of molecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm of the cell is needed for the cell to react to its environment, which is compromised during the aging process. Most of the cellular process, such as changes in gene expression, require this transport, from the import of transcription factors into the nucleus to the export of transcribed messenger RNAs into the cytoplasm where the corresponding proteins are produced. Protecting and improving this process therefore directly affects the vitality of the cell and is one of the main pillars of cellular rejuvenation. 

However, we have several actives that target other hallmarks of aging: by reducing senescence, vitalizing skin stem cells, improving intercellular communication and preventing epigenetic changes caused by stress and aging just to name a few.



Paolo Camattari
Skincare Formulation Manager - Oriflame







As it’s well known in the industry, the skin is the largest organ of the body. One of the roles of the skin (if not the main role) is to create an interface with the environment, making it a living organ, constantly adapting to different environmental conditions.

The mechanisms regulating the biological processes are many and varied, but there are key things that the skin always needs. One of these is certainly a good level of hydration, considering that it is key to fight also other signs of ageing (i.e. wrinkles or redness), so achieving good moisturisation is the first step to develop a performing product. Despite this well-known fact, it’s been challenging for finished products and raw material manufacturers to prove the incremental benefit of using a specific active ingredient, as the formulation built could deliver strong enough performances on its own. One of the strategies is to combine “old school” ingredients (phospholipids, fatty acids, ceramides, occlusive agents) with more sophisticated texture enhancers, to overcome the drawbacks of the former, especially from a sensory perspective: glycerine’s tackiness, petrolatum heaviness, fatty acid “soapiness”.

A skincare product, nowadays, also must deliver some sort of protection to the skin, since we are surrounded by much harsher elements of stress than in the past. Protection is a broad concept, that can be delivered through different approaches, per the product type and companies’ strategies. It is becoming common to include UV filters in daily care, and not only in those products to be used on sunny beaches; SPF are moving towards higher values, and broad spectrum (meaning UVB and UVA) is becoming the norm for the industry.
UVA and UVB are not the only type of radiations we should seek protection from, as visible, blue light (or High Energy Light) and Infra-red are getting more and more attention with consumers and within the scientific community. A part from radiations, the skin also needs to be protected from pollution and particle matters, and from this perspective it can count on research on anti-oxidants, targeting Reactive Oxygen Species, or polymers which form a network on the skin creating a physical shield and preventing their penetration into its different layers.

Formulation is a balancing act of performance, cost and sensory, especially nowadays when it’s not enough to develop a product that works, it must also deliver an experience on multiple levels.


Taking into consideration the Innovation in the cosmetic field, how do you help skin that is ageing: with what actives, textures, cosmetic forms?

Paolo Camattari - Oriflame

As we age, our skin undergoes some changes on its structure and biological processes. The layers of the skin become thinner, the scaffolding of the skin is not as strong, with the visible results of loss of elasticity or expression lines beginning to appear. Ageing is an unavoidable process that happens gradually and constantly, rather than an ON/OFF button; for this reason, a formulator needs to bear in mind where target consumer is on his “ageing” journey, and which concern the product needs to address, such as skin-tone, wrinkles, or sagging skin. As a rule of thumb, aged skin needs more help than young skin, so products for mature skin are richer in texture, to provide more protection, build a stronger barrier and replenish the outer layers of the skin. A richer texture can be achieved by using combination of oils that can take the consumer through a high-profile sensory journey, or cushioning polymers and elastomers for a cocooning effect on application.

Texture is strictly linked to how the finished product is applied: formulations for aged skin shouldn’t be too fast absorbing, allowing a longer massaging time onto the skin, hence delivering a positive effect on both micro-circulation, penetration of active ingredients and consumer experience. 



Maria Lueder-Specht



Homeostasis, in a general sense, refers to stability, balance, or equilibrium. Physiologically, it is the body’s attempt to maintain a constant and balanced internal environment, which requires persistent monitoring and adjustments as conditions change. Environmental and endogeneous stress does have an influence on the equilibrium that under normal circumstances can be adjusted by internal pathways of regulation. Constant stress factors such as e.g. pollution, pathogenic organisms (bacteria, fungi and viruses) and toxins might overwhelm our internal repair mechanisms and let them loose strengths. The higher the stress the more support our internal repair systems need to function well and to keep our skin fully intact. 

Glutathione our strongest body-own antioxidant is regarded as an important factor for optimal cellular function and effective defence against oxidative stress. When the capacity of the natural antioxidant protection is used up, more oxidative stress will lead to an imbalance between the formation and removal of ROS and RNS. An excessive production of radicals and therefore an inadequate antioxidant protection will follow. The causes of excessive production of ROS and RNS after receiving redox active xenobiotics and excessive production of NO and congestion load of SOD will lead to the formation of peroxy-nitrite, a very strong oxidant (1,2).

Natural defence mechanisms of human cells can form so called phase I and phase II enzymes that transfer molecular waste into intermediates (phase I) in order to bind it to small water-soluble molecules (phase II) that can be evacuated from the cells. The bioflavonoids of a Citrus paradisi (Grapefruit) based active ingredient significantly induce the formation of phase I and phase II enzymes and help to dispose waste molecules (3). The bioflavonoids of Citrus paradisi strongly reduce the formation of ROS and RNS when tested in vitro.

Another impact of an imbalance initiated by environmental as well as endogeneous stress is an increased formation of glycated products that with time lead to the development of AGE (Advanced Glycation End Product). The highest quantities of AGE can be found in the dermis where high molecular proteins like collagen are affected. AGE are increasing with age and destroy the extra cellular matrix that mainly consists of collagen. Collagen fibers loose for example their tensile strengths, they show an increased resistance against their depletion by enzymes and increase non-enzymatic cross linking. The bioflavonoids of Citrus paradisi reduced the formation of AGE in vitro (4) and in vivo (5,6).


  1. Sagar B. Kedare& R. P. Singh, Genesis and development of DPPH method of antioxidant assay: J.Food Sci Technol (July–August 2011) 48(4):412–422
  2. Dedon P C, and Tannenbaum S R, Reactive nitrogen species in the chemical biology of inflammation: Elsevier Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 423 (2004) 12–22
  3. Maria Lueder, Reto Caldelari, Peter Girling, Joachim Blank; Phase I and Phase II Enzyme Induction in Human Keratinocytes Treated with a Standardized Grapefruit Extract Rich in Bioflavonoids: IFSCC Magazine, 1-2010, p.11-15
  4. Matsuura N, Aradate T, Sasaki C, Kojima H, Ohara M, Hasegawa J, Ubukata M, Screening system for the Maillard reaction inhibitor from natural product extracts.: J Health Sci 2002, 48(6):520-526
  5. Nomoto K, Yagi M, Hamada U, Naito J, Yonei Y; Identification of Advanced Glycation Endproducts derived fluorescence spectrum in vitro and human skin: Anti-Aging Medicine 2013, 10 (5):92-100.
  6. Crisan D, Crisan M, Moldovan M, Lupsor M, Badea R; Ultrasonographic assessment of the cutaneous changes induced by topical flavonoid therapy: Clinical, cosmetic and investigational dermatology 2012, 5:7-13.


Taking into consideration the Innovation in the cosmetic field, how do you help skin that is ageing: with what actives, textures, cosmetic forms?

Maria Lueder-Specht - Qenax

Aging skin needs support to fulfil its physiological function as the first defence line of our body with respect to negative external influences. External influences are manifold and they all have one thing in common. Once they weaken the first defence line, excessive formation of ROS and RNS are following. It is therefore essential to keep the first defence line fully intact and strong. This can be reached by different active ingredients, following different pathways. An Olea europaea based active ingredient, from the fruits and the leaves of olives successfully protects against oxidative stress from UV-rays. It increases the natural glutathione content in skin and makes it more resilient. An active ingredient based on Citrus paradisi from the fruits and the peel of grapefruits actively helps to prevent the formation of cell waste and helps to evacuate it. It prevents the formation of AGE specifically in the dermis and helps to keep the skin smooth, firm and radiant. An active ingredient based on Coffea arabica from green coffee beans prevents epidermis dryness by an increase of Aquaglyceroporin-3, so-called water channels in skin, that keep it well hydrated. The active also induces the formation of new connective tissue which nourishes the skin and reduces signs of aging like fine lines and a loss of elasticity.



Aïna Queiroz
Innovation & Scientific Communication Manager
Seqens Cosmetics






Day after day, we are subjected to a substantial variety of exposures since our intrauterine life, called the exposome. Stress, diet, tobacco, pollution are just a few examples of factors considered as making it up.

From a medical consideration to dermo-cosmetics application? 

The term “exposome” was firstly suggested in 2005 by Dr Christopher Wild, current Director of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and was later found in French Loi Touraine in 2015, as part of the study and management of environmental exposure. 

Our skin being particularly exposed, the impacts of this numerous factors are particularly wide and had not been so much considered, except by some specific research teams. As an example, Prof. Jean Krutmann, Director of the Liebniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine (IUF), has published “The skin aging exposome” (1). Meanwhile, since 5 years, the French company SEQENS Cosmetics (ex-ID bio) has been developing natural synergetic solutions to minimize the exposome impact at cutaneous level.

Botanical shields 

The main thread guiding the Research & Innovation department of SEQENS Cosmetics was to identify the botanical shields able of preventing and fighting in a complementary manner the various consequences of these exposures. And to reinforce the natural protection of the skin against the diversity of exposome constituents, we imagined and developed three solutions in synergy: 

1. A mechanical shield to physically limit the penetration of harmful particles right to the epidermis. This active ingredient is obtained from marshmallow root, with some complex sugars forming a protective veil in the way of a “glyco-cocoon”. This active provides anti-adhesive properties vs. the exposure to particles (upstream) as well as a booster effect for their removal (downstream). 

2. A biological shield, which prevents and repairs the effects of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, a characteristic feature of tobacco smoke and certain exhaust gases. For this ingredient, bio-inspired by buckwheat phyto-remediation (de-pollution of an environment thanks to a plant), we sought to limit the pro-inflammatory response (IL-8) and preserve skin homeostasis (tight junction, CLDN1 & 4) against UV and benzo[a] pyrene exposures. 

3. A soothing shield that relieves fragile and regularly exposed skins to stress or temperature changes, for example. This ingredient was designed from a co-product, the saffron flower. We highlighted effects on the barrier function (profilaggrin), inflammation (NF-kB/TNF-α) and neurosensory discomfort (TRPV1).

Today, the company is still investigating on the exposome with a complete holistic approach, including the psychosocial dimension.


  1. J. Krutmann, A. Bouloc, G. Sore, B.A. Bernard, T. Passeron, M.D, The skin aging exposome, Journal of dermatological science 85.3 (2017): 152-161. 
  2.  Willcox, D. Craig, et al. “Life at the extreme limit: phenotypic characteristics of supercentenarians in Okinawa.” The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 63.11 (2008): 1201-1208.


Taking into consideration the Innovation in the cosmetic field, how do you help skin that is ageing: with what actives, textures, cosmetic forms?

Aïna Queiroz - Seqens Cosmetics

With our latest innovation based on Alpinia speciosa leaf extract, we no longer try in vain to make time stand still, but rather embrace the passing of time by promoting Healthy Aging. 

Indeed, studies carried out in the Blue Zones, regions with higher than average life expectancy, such as Okinawa Island, suggest that genes, lifestyle and psychosocial factors are key to explain longevity and “healthy aging” (2). The Research & Innovation teams at SEQENS Cosmetics were inspired by the unique characteristics of the Japanese archipelago, both in terms of supercentenarian psychosocial environment and ethnobotanical aspect including the traditional consumption of certain local plants, in its approach to develop a healthy aging active ingredient. 

SEQENS Cosmetics thus studied the properties of a plant known to contribute to the particularly high life expectancy in the Okinawa Blue Zone: getto (Alpinia zerumbet or Alpinia speciosa). This work demonstrated that getto leaves extract had a beneficial cutaneous effect by promoting tissue and cellular connections, while giving the skin a healthy appearance. This ingredient thus represents a botanical active cosmetic solution which falls within the scope of the “healthy aging” skincare product segment.  



Laurie Verzeaux
Scientific Communication Project Leader






The skin is the first line of defense of the body against external elements. In order to provide effective and protective cosmetic solutions, SILAB develops natural active ingredients designed to maintain or restore the skin homeostasis towards these various environmental factors. 

  • Targeting the biological pathways of sensitive skin
    If every skin has its own sensitivity, some react excessively to external stimuli (1). Among environmental factors, cold and pollution display the most impact on sensitive skin (2). These stresses act on neuronal hyper-reactivity, alter the barrier function and exacerbate inflammation, thus augmenting unpleasant sensations of sensitive skin (3). For a soothing cosmetic treatment to be effective, it must address these three biological components.
    In this context, SILAB developed a natural active ingredient with a transversal action. Indeed, this innovative ingredient defuses the infernal trio of sensitive skin by neutralizing the key receptor TRPV1, improving the quality of the skin barrier and limiting the skin inflammation. The establishment of in vivo models also enabled to demonstrate the soothing effect in extreme situations (winter climate, polluted environment) on Caucasian and Asian skin. Altogether, these developments and substantiations indicate that this active ingredient provides an overall and adapted solution to relieve sensitive skin exposed to environmental aggressions. 
  • Protecting the skin against environmental stresses with a second skin film
    As a complement to active ingredient targeting biological pathways, second skin films form an immediate protective shield against external aggressions. SILAB proposed a patented IBPN technology® to develop natural interpenetrating biopolymer networks. This technology is at the heart of the development of a natural second skin film, displaying a dense meshwork at the surface of the epidermis, capable of protecting from external aggressions while leaving water exchanges of the skin unaffected. Studies have shown that this cosmetic ingredient reduces the penetration of particulate matter, allergens and irritants immediately and lasts for 24 hours. Furthermore, an in vivo test reveals that a single application of this second skin film reduces the transepidermal water loss caused by a mechanical aggression. 

Hence, to tackle environmental stresses, a soft and totally natural approach could require a complementary association of a natural physical protection with a cosmetic active ingredient able to target major skin biological pathways to restore skin homeostasis. 


  1. Misery L. Neuropsychiatric factors in sensitive skin. Clin Dermatol. 2017 Jun;35(3):281–4.
  2. Duarte I, Silveira JEPS, Hafner M de FS, Toyota R, Pedroso DMM. Sensitive skin: review of an ascending concept. An Bras Dermatol. 2017;92(4):521–5. 
  3. Misery L, Loser K, Ständer S. Sensitive skin. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol JEADV. 2016 Feb;30 Suppl 1:2–8.


Taking into consideration the Innovation in the cosmetic field, how do you help skin that is ageing: with what actives, textures, cosmetic forms?

Laurie Verzeaux - SILAB

Olfactory & taste receptors: innovative pathways to regenerate mature skin

Recent studies reported the expression of olfactory and taste receptors by keratinocytes, whose stimulation favors the cutaneous regeneration (1-3). Therefore, SILAB decided to investigate these receptors in the course of aging. For the first time, results revealed that regulation of olfactory and taste receptors was disrupted with age. In order to reinforce skin regeneration during aging, SILAB developed a specific process to extract effective natural molecules from Cocos nucifera. Metabolomic and molecular modeling studies identified the two molecules able to interact and stimulate these olfactory and taste receptors. In vitro experiments revealed that the natural active ingredient improves the keratinocyte migration resulting from the activation of olfactory receptors. Moreover, the stimulation of taste receptors with this natural active ingredient also improves the epidermal renewal.

As a result, the investigation of sensory receptors newly discovered within the skin coupled to SILAB’s innovative approach in aging conditions allows to propose an unprecedented natural cosmetic active ingredient that boosts the skin regeneration altered with age.  


  1. Abaffy T. Human Olfactory Receptors Expression and Their Role in Non-Olfactory Tissues-Mini-Review. J Pharmacogenomics Pharmacoproteomics. 2015; 1;06.
  2. Busse D, Kudella P, Grüning N-M, Gisselmann G, Ständer S, Luger T, et al. A synthetic sandalwood odorant induces wound-healing processes in human keratinocytes via the olfactory receptor OR2AT4. J Invest Dermatol. 2014; 134(11):2823–32.
  3. Wölfle U, Elsholz FA, Kersten A, Haarhaus B, Müller WE, Schempp CM. Expression and functional activity of the bitter taste receptors TAS2R1 and TAS2R38 in human keratinocytes. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2015; 28(3):137–46.