Plant part variability of Sambucus ebulus L. secondary metabolites content and antioxidant activity
ABSTRACT: Total phenolic content, concentration of flavonoids and antioxidant activity of different extracts from leaves, stems, roots and friuts of Sambucus ebulus L. were determined. The total phenolic content in the extracts was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu’s reagent and their amounts ranged from 29.87 to 126.10 mg GAE/g. The concentration of flavonoids varied from 4.50 to 97.65 mg RUE/g. Antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH reagent and expressed as IC50 values (ranged from 47.37 to 710.94 µg/ml), as well as compared to the results for Ginkgo biloba standardized extract and chlorogenic acid as a synthetic supstance. The ethyl acetate extract from fruits and methanolic leaves extract contain the greatest concentration of phenolic compounds and showed strong antioxidant activity. The reports related to our research suggest large contribution of separate analysis of plant parts and could help for maximum exploitation for natural sources of active phenolic compounds and antioxidants from S. ebulus.
Sambucus ebulus L. (danewort, dwarf eder, elderberry) belongs to the family Adoxaceae (order Dipsacales). It is a wild-growning, perennial herbaceous plant with unbranched stems up to 2 m high. The pinnate leaved stems growing from a perennial underground rhizome and terminate with a corymb inflorescence with white flowers or black berries during autumn. S. ebulus is distributed across southern and central Europe, southwest Asia and northwest Africa; prefers light habitats, but can tolerate shading. The small berries of the Sambucus species are rarely consumed as a fruit, mainly are processed into juice and generating large amounts of wastes (1). Leaves, roots and rhizomes were applied to treat nettle and bee bites, arthritis and sore-throat (2). Effects of danewort in the treatment of edema, eczema, burn, urticaria, infectious wounds and cold were also reported (3-5).
Previous studies on S. ebulus phytochemical composition resulting in the isolation of four iridoid glycosides from root material and six iridoid glycosides from leaves (6-9). A number of lectins, known as ebulins, have been isolated from leaves, fruit ...