Potential management of teeth and gums disorders through oral microbiome modulation
Oral diseases, specifically periodontal diseases and dental caries, are among the most prevalent health issues affecting half of the world’s population (1). Although various means can prevent them (i.e toothbrushing, fluoride toothpaste, chlorhexidine mouth rinses etc.) these disorders remain common and may induce deleterious effect on systemic health (2), constituting a major public health challenge with significant socio-economic impact. Indeed, the total direct treatment costs due to oral diseases worldwide were estimated to be $298 billion yearly, or about 4.6 percent of global health expenditure (3). Therefore, new strategies to support oral health are needed.
Oral microbiome includes about 50 to 100 billion bacteria belonging to 700 predominant species in the oral cavity (4). The different bacteria’ species interact together establishing an ecosystem where each community may influence the oral and systemic health of the host. Among the beneficial effects of this complex ecosystem, both resistance to infections and modulation of inflammatory response are well described (5).
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