Characterization of arbutin and kojic acid in Naringi crenulata
Arbutin and kojic acid in fruit and leaf of Naringi crenulata were comparatively analysed. The ripped fruit and dried leaf were refluxed in ethyl alcohol and water for 1 h, separately. The whitening agents were successively separated by an isocratic mobile phase of HPLC consisting of 10 percent acetonitrile and 90 of 3 percent aq. acetic acid flowed at 1 ml/min. Arbutin was firstly eluted (3.5599 ± 0.0038 min) followed by kojic acid (4.0536 ± 0.0028 min). The leaf alcoholic and water extracts contained more arbutin (0.6185 ± 0.0008 and 10.7483 ± 0.2263 g/kg) and kojic acid (0.2471 ± 0.0396 and 1.3787 ± 0.1251 g/kg) than those of fruit (arbutin = 0.4364 ± 0.0131, 8.2417 ± 0.1296 g/kg and kojic acid = 0.0335 ± 0.0257, 1.2103 ± 0.1136 g/kg). N. crenulata leaf is therefore concluded as the potential source of arbutin and kojic acid appraisal for ecological application into natural skin whitening cosmetics.
Natural cosmetic particularly herbal and botanical cosmetics are in the main stream of cosmetic consumer interested as they are considered safer than cosmetics containing the synthetic ingredients or animal derived raw materials (1). Naringi crenulata (Roxb.) Nicolson synonym of Hesperethusa crenulata (Roxb.) M. Roem or Limonia crenulata Roxb. commonly called Kra-jae in Thai or Thanaka in Burmese has been continuously used as traditional cosmetics. The powered stem wood prepared by grinding the stem on the flat round stone moist with water has been used as a natural skin conditioner especially as facial cosmetics in Myanmar. Burmese women paint their faces yellow with the powder in cycle, which functions on skin cooling, sunscreen preventing sunburn in addition to its efficacy of long time used proven on anti – aging, prevention of acne and providing soft and fresh skin texture (2). This botanical cosmetics has long been claimed for skin whitening effect with a proved safety application of the stem bark (3). In addition, those of N. crenulata cultivated in Myanmar were of pharmacognostic similar to those ...