Decreasing deoxynivalenol concentration in maize within the production chain of animal feed
This paper deals with the changes of deoxynivalenol content in chain of production, cleaning, drying, storage and processing of maize. During seven months of storage the content of deoxynivalenol was significantly decreased in comparison to the content of deoxynivalenol detected in the same lots immediately after harvest (D=3.23 mg/kg; p=0.00012). The content of deoxynivalenol was significantly decreased in the maize extrudate in comparison to the content of deoxynivalenol detected in the same lots immediately after maize harvest (D=4.1 mg/kg; p=0.000014) and also significantly decreased in the extrudate in comparison to maize whole grains after seven months of storage (D=0.85 mg/kg; p=0.013). Such a decreasing of deoxynivalenol content can be explained by adequately provided postharvest treatment and extrusion.
The effects of mycotoxins on health of livestock and their implications on human health have been well known (1), and it has been estimated that 25% of the world’s crops are affected by the mould or fungal growth and as stable, natural contaminants of the food chain. Mycotoxin reduction requires a multifaceted approach, including farmers, government agencies, food processors and scientists due to its significant impact on costs of food production. Moreover, international regulatory standards for mycotoxins in food commodities determine the extent of global trade in contaminated commodities (2). During the nineties the general opinion was that deoxynivalenol (DON) was a very stable chemical compound and it could not degrade during the grain storage, milling, cooking or during any ind of processing and exposure to high temperatures (3,4,5). However, extrusion of milled flour and whole meal samples, both obtained from sodium bisulphite treated wheat, did not change DON levels significantly under the studied extrusion conditions as compared to the not extruded milled flour and whole meal samples (6). Trichothecenes are relatively heat stable c ...