Study of Chemical Compounds and Antimicrobial Properties of Extracts from Various Parts of Bongardia chrysogonum
Essential oils and extracts from medicinal plants by having antimicrobial, anticancer and antioxidant compounds as new and natural drug combinations in the field of health and treatment of diseases and protection of raw and processed foods have a special importance. In the present study, the chemical compounds and antimicrobial properties of extracts from seed, leaf and flower parts of Bongardia chrysogonum were investigated. The results showed that the amount of alfa-tocopherol in the leaf extract of Bongardia chrysogonum was considerably more than two parts of seed and flower, and beta and gamma-tocopherol were more observed in the extract of flower of Bongardia chrysogonum. Total amount of sterol compounds in various parts of Bongardia chrysogonum in leaf was 2091.55 mg / kg, in seed 2209.89 mg/kg, and flower 2573.44 mg/kg.The results of phytochemistry showed that there are compounds such as steroids, terpenes, tannins and alkaloids in Bongardia chrysogonum. These compounds have strong antioxidant effects. Microbial analysis showed that seed extract are more effective on gram negative bacteria, flower extract on gram positive bacteria and leaf extract on fungi and could significantly limit the growth of microorganisms. Results showed that the extracts of various parts of Bongardia chrysogonum have proper antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, so for the application of herbal, bioactive, antimicrobial and antioxidant compositions, as well as reducing the economic costs of Bongardia chrysogonum that is indegenous product of our country can be used in various food formulations, especially in the formulation of edible oils, to replace synthetic and chemical antioxidants.
Today, the occurrence of drug resistance in a variety of pathogenic microorganisms on the one hand and the harmful effects of chemical and synthetic food preservatives on the other hand has become a major challenge in both areas of human health and treatment. Therefore, there is a continuing need to identify new antimicrobial compounds to minimize the drug resistance of microorganisms and use them as a substitute for chemical holders (1). Antioxidant compounds are used to maintain the quality of food and increase life span of their maintenance. Today, synthetic antioxidants are widely used in the food industry, but their safety is doubtful (2). Essential oils and extracts from medicinal plants by having antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant compositions and eliminating factors of free radicals have a high potential for application as a natural and new preservative in protecting raw and processed foods. (3, 4). Bongardia chrysogonum is one of the Berberidaceae plants that grow as weed in the cereal fields of West Azarbaijan, Khorasan and Lorestan provinces (4). It is a perennial, static plant with 20 to 100 cm height, multiplied by seed and undergroun ...