Discussing strategies and regulations for delineating efficacy and safety of dietary supplements in sports nutrition
Adequate nutrition is one of the vital factors for participating in endurance sports with a specific focus on dietary modifications. A proper nutritional plan prior, during and post competition would be helpful in sports performance. A large body of clinical evidences supports the use of dietary supplements in sports performance. The health benefits include: replenishment of water by isotonic drinks, improvement of endurance, enhancement of muscle strength, prevention of muscle/joint injuries or fatigue and maintenance in immunity, decrease in muscle/fat mass, improving brain performance, decreasing delayed onset muscle soreness or pain (anti-inflammatory properties), reducing injury severity, enhancing recovery from injury, reducing gastrointestinal problems, and decreasing respiratory tract infection illness load. A number of dietary supplements have been reported to enhance sports performance. These include multienzyme complex, beet root extracts, and Coleus forskohlii extract. Multienzyme complex have been found to have significant effects on delaying the onset of muscle soreness post exercise. A significant reduction in McGill pain scores (p<0.05) was observed with multienzyme complex. Effects on LDH and inflammatory biomarkers like ESR and hs-CRP has been documented with betalains. A significant improvement in these parameters has been associated with cardiovascular health and exercise performance (p< 0.05). The bioactives like forskolin have been found to significantly promote lean body mass and weight loss (p< 0.05). A majority of athletes are inclined on the use of dietary supplements or engineered foods to gain a competitive edge for sports performance in recent times. However, health claims might provide misleading information associated with the safety, legality, and efficacy of dietary supplements. Therefore, a stringent regulatory framework has been adopted across globe for marketing authorization to ensure safety and efficacy for these sports nutrition foods. The regulatory requirements for risk assessment of dietary supplements for sports nutrition include data on the clinical efficacy and safety data, toxicity profile, historical use of the medicine.
SIGNIFICANCE AND EFFECT OF SPORTS NUTRITION ON EXERCISE
Adequate nutrition is one of the vital factors for participating in endurance sports with a specific focus on dietary modifications. A goal oriented fitness development plan initiated at adolescence creates a foundation for an active lifestyle, evading potential overweight, and reducing motor deficiencies, thereby improving an overall quality of life. Sports nutrition plays a key role in sports performance. A proper nutritional plan prior, during and post competition would be helpful in sports performance. The most important meals are the ones taken before and after the exercise; however, the dietary components of the meals should be taken into consideration with all that the athlete intake in his body.
As a general rule, meals should be taken about two hours before any exercise and should be low in fat, rich in carbohydrates, and low to moderate in proteins. Carbohydrates act as the main source of energy and proteins aid in muscle growth (1). The main functional properties of carbohydrates are maintaining high levels of carbohydrate oxidation, preventing hypoglycemia, and a positive effect on the cen ...