Impact of maternal obesity on health of offspring
Obesity is a global issue, a health disorder once common in adults is now increasingly evident in children. It is quite plausible that development of obesity in childhood years could be the result of interplay between pre-pregnancy and gestational body weight, maternal nutrition, and levels of primary biochemical markers such as glucose and insulin found in the mother, and their influence on the fetus. Further, maternal obesity is associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors and neurological disorders among offspring. This review focuses on the many physiological alterations resulting from maternal obesity, causing in-utero pre-programming and inducing various maternal environmental stimuli; thus, encouraging predisposition to obesity during childhood continuing through adulthood. This review will allow an understanding of the importance of maternal nutrition, maternal pre-pregnancy, and gestational body weight that may further assist favourable physiological in-utero environment for the growing fetus.
INTRODUCTION- EVENTS LEADING TO CHILDHOOD OBESITY
There is mounting evidence that pediatric overweight and obesity have dramatically risen over that last three decades (1). There is also an understanding that over two-thirds of obese children will grow up to be obese adults with accompanying health issues like type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and certain cancers (1). Aside from the health risks involved, the financial burden of long-term health care for families of children battling obesity can be enormous. Obesity is a multi-factorial health condition and therefore the treatment warrants a similar multi-disciplinary approach. Amongst many causative factors for the development of obesity and related disorders explained over the years, it appears that the influence of maternal pre-pregnancy and gestational weight along with nutrition play a crucial role in the development of certain chronic diseases, obesity being in the lead (1, 2). Therefore, the preventive efforts for obesity could begin as early as in-utero continuing through adulthood.
Recent evidences suggest that origins of obesity and metabolic irregularities could be a resu ...