Mangosteen extract for short-term pain management – Preclinical approach and pilot clinical investigation on volunteers with soft tissue pain
Soft tissue pain is a common and debilitating disorder linked to a wide range of unhealthy conditions, mainly involving inflammatory processes. Although frequently prescribed to manage inflammatory conditions and attendant pain, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are nevertheless associated with side and unwanted effects. Accordingly, providing safe and natural alternatives is a current challenge. In this study, an extract of mangosteen rich in ?- and ?-mangostins is demonstrated to significantly decrease production of the inflammation marker, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), in a murine model of inflammation, and to significantly reduce soft tissue pain in volunteers during a clinical investigation.
Soft tissue pain may arise from a variety of conditions, ranging from acute post-traumatic injuries, which ordinarily occur during physical exercise, to chronic joint complaints such as osteoarthritis or rheumatic disorders. The general population may be affected with soft tissue-related injury throughout the course of their life, regardless of circumstances, and the resulting pain represents a leading clinical cause of physical disability and impaired quality of life. Soft tissue-associated pain is the consequence of a cascade of inflammatory events occurring as a physiological response to injured tissue. Accordingly, inflammatory cells, i.e. monocytes, are rapidly mobilized from the circulation to infiltrate in the form of macrophages at site of the damage where they release several mediators of inflammatory response. The magnitude of inflammatory reaction is the root of initiated and sustained pain. Among the most important mediators involved in inflammation-related pain, prostaglandins, particularly prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), is able to directly activate pain-responsive nociceptors (1). PGE2 is generated from ...