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Recent evolutionof flow-modulation comprehensive gas chromatographywithin the context of mass spectrometry hyphenation

FLAVIO A. FRANCHINA1, GIORGIA PURCARO1, MARIAROSA MAIMONE2, PETER Q. TRANCHIDA2*, LUIGI MONDELLO1,2,3
*Corresponding author
1. Chromaleont s.r.l., c/o University of Messina, Polo Annunziata, viale Annunziata, 98168, Messina, Italy
2. “Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Biologiche, Farmaceutiche ed Ambientali”, University of Messina, Polo Annunziata, viale Annunziata, 98168, Messina, Italy

3. Università Campus Bio-medico of Rome, via Álvaro del Portillo 21, 00128 Roma, Italy

KEYWORDS: Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography, flow modulation, mass spectrometry, method optimization.
ABSTRACT:
The present short review (based on research performed by the authors reported above) describes recent evolution (2011-2016 period) of flow modulation (FM) comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC), within the context of mass spectrometry (MS) hyphenation. Specifically, it will be shown how intensive research on an FM model has enabled a great reduction in gas flows (down to approx. 4 mL min-1), making the combination of GC×GC and MS now much easier.

INTRODUCTION

Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) is now a well-established multidimensional GC method, it being introduced nearly 25 years ago (1). In GC×GC, a device named modulator enables the continuous and sequential transfer of “heart-cuts” from a primary to a secondary column. Separations in the second dimension (2D) are usually very rapid, normally less than 10 s. GC×GC data are visualized in a two-dimension (2D) format, ...




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